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Apatosaurus

Reptilia - Diplodocidae

Taxonomy
Apatosaurus was named by Marsh (1877).

It was synonymized subjectively with Atlantosaurus by Steel (1970); it was synonymized subjectively with Amphicoelias by Galiano and Albersdörfer (2010).

It was assigned to Sauropoda by Williston (1878); to Sauropoda by Marsh (1878) and Marsh (1879); to Opisthocoelia by Riggs (1903); to Camarasaurinae by Nopcsa (1928); to Atlantosauridae by Marsh (1877), Marsh (1881), Sauvage (1882), Dollo (1884), Marsh (1884), Marsh (1885), Zittel (1890), Marsh (1893), Marsh (1895), Marsh (1896), Marsh (1898), Mansel-Pleydell (1902), Hay (1902), Huene (1908), Huene (1908), Huene (1909), von Zittel (1911), Tornier (1913), Lull (1924) and Huene (1929); to Brachiosauridae by Tatarinov (1964) and Romer (1966); to Titanosauridae by Van Valen (1969); to Atlantosaurinae by Swinton (1970); to Diplodocinae by McIntosh (1990), McIntosh (1990) and Salgado (1999); to Apatosauridae by Huene (1927), Galton (1977) and Bonaparte (1999); to Apatosaurinae by Romer (1956), Coombs and Molnar (1981) and Taylor and Naish (2005); to Diplodocidae by Berman and McIntosh (1978), Charig (1980), McIntosh (1981), Russell (1984), Bonaparte (1986), Bonaparte (1986), Carroll (1988), Miller et al. (1991), Mcintosh et al. (1992), Salgado (1993), Britt and Naylor (1994), Carpenter and McIntosh (1994), Upchurch (1995), Upchurch (1995), Calvo and Salgado (1995), Wilson and Smith (1996), McIntosh (1997), Ryan and Vickaryous (1997), Dodson (1997), Sereno (1997), Dong (1998), Wilson and Sereno (1998), Wilson (2002), Upchurch et al. (2004), Upchurch et al. (2004), Harris and Dodson (2004), Apesteguía (2005), Foster (2005), McIntosh (2005), Gallina and Apesteguía (2005), Rauhut et al. (2005), Chure et al. (2006), Salgado et al. (2006), Remes (2006), Suteethorn et al. (2010), Mateus and Milàn (2010), Whitlock (2011), Ibiricu et al. (2012), Mannion et al. (2012), Tschopp and Mateus (2013) and Mocho et al. (2014); to Diplodocoidea by Xing et al. (2015); and to Apatosaurinae by Tschopp et al. (2015).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1877Apatosaurus Marsh
1877Titanosaurus Marsh p. 87
1877Apatosaurus Marsh pp. 514-515
1878Apatosaurus Marsh p. 412
1878Apatosaurus Williston pp. 44-45
1878Titanosaurus Williston p. 45
1879Apatosaurus Marsh pp. 86-88
1881Apatosaurus Marsh
1882Apatosaurus Sauvage p. 35
1884Apatosaurus Dollo p. 298
1884Apatosaurus Marsh p. 68
1885Apatosaurus Marsh p. 764
1890Apatosaurus Zittel p. 706
1893Apatosaurus Marsh p. 437
1895Apatosaurus Marsh
1896Apatosaurus Marsh p. 241
1898Apatosaurus Marsh p. 158
1902Apatosaurus Hay p. 485
1902Apatosaurus Mansel-Pleydell p. lxxvi
1903Apatosaurus Riggs
1908Apatosaurus Huene p. 297
1909Apatosaurus Huene p. 14
1911Apatosaurus von Zittel p. 285
1913Apatosaurus Tornier p. 370
1924Apatosaurus Lull p. 234
1927Apatosaurus Huene p. 125
1928Apatosaurus Nopcsa p. 184
1929Apatosaurus Huene p. 118
1956Apatosaurus Romer p. 622
1964Apatosaurus Tatarinov p. 547
1966Apatosaurus Romer p. 370
1969Apatosaurus Van Valen p. 624
1970Apatosaurus Swinton pp. 176-177
1977Apatosaurus Galton p. 230
1978Apatosaurus Berman and McIntosh pp. 32-33
1980Apatosaurus Charig p. 239
1981Apatosaurus Coombs, Jr. and Molnar p. 356
1981Apatosaurus McIntosh p. 23
1984Apatosaurus Russell p. 23
1986Apatosaurus Bonaparte p. 253
1988Apatosaurus Carroll
1990Apatosaurus McIntosh p. 56
1991Apatosaurus Miller et al. p. 40
1992Apatosaurus Mcintosh et al. p. 164
1993Apatosaurus Salgado p. 269
1994Apatosaurus Britt and Naylor p. 260
1994Apatosaurus Carpenter and McIntosh p. 266
1995Apatosaurus Calvo and Salgado p. 30 fig. 18
1995Apatosaurus Upchurch p. 253
1996Apatosaurus Wilson and Smith p. 73A
1997Apatosaurus Dodson p. 11
1997Apatosaurus McIntosh p. 656
1997Apatosaurus Ryan and Vickaryous p. 172
1997Apatosaurus Sereno p. 453
1998Apatosaurus Dong p. 84
1998Apatosaurus Wilson and Sereno p. 17
1999Apatosaurus Bonaparte p. 144
1999Apatosaurus Salgado p. 204
2002Apatosaurus Wilson p. 240 fig. 13
2004Apatosaurus Harris and Dodson p. 207 fig. 4
2004Apatosaurus Upchurch et al. p. 264
2004Apatosaurus Upchurch et al.
2005Apatosaurus Apesteguía p. 256
2005Apatosaurus Foster p. 145
2005Apatosaurus Gallina and Apesteguía p. 159 fig. 5
2005Apatosaurus McIntosh p. 69
2005Apatosaurus Rauhut et al. p. 672 fig. 2
2005Apatosaurus Taylor and Naish pp. 3-4
2006Apatosaurus Chure et al. p. 236
2006Apatosaurus Remes p. 664 fig. 9
2006Apatosaurus Salgado et al. p. 704 fig. 9
2010Apatosaurus Mateus and Milàn p. 254
2010Apatosaurus Suteethorn et al.
2011Apatosaurus Whitlock
2012Apatosaurus Ibiricu et al. p. 226
2012Apatosaurus Mannion et al.
2013Apatosaurus Tschopp and Mateus p. 877 fig. 11
2014Apatosaurus Mocho et al.
2015Apatosaurus Tschopp et al.
2015Apatosaurus Xing et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
RankNameAuthor
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Eusaurischia
Sauropodomorpha(Huene 1932)
Massopoda
Sauropodiformes
Sauropoda()
Eusauropoda
Neosauropoda
Diplodocoidea()
familyDiplodocidae
Apatosaurinae()
genusApatosaurus

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteinfrao
Entire body: yesg
Adult length: 10 to < 100infrao
Adult width: 10 to < 100infrao
Adult height: 10 to < 100infrao
Maximum body mass: 30000 kgg
Minimum body mass: 10000 kgg
Thickness: thickinfrao
Architecture: compact or denseinfrao
Form: sphericalinfrao
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partsinfrao
Grouping: gregariousinfrao
Environment: terrestrialinfrao
Locomotion: actively mobileinfrao
Life habit: ground dwellinginfrao
Diet: herbivoreinfrao
Reproduction: oviparousinfrao
Dispersal: direct/internalinfrao
Dispersal 2: mobileinfrao
Created: 2005-08-24 13:40:25
Modified: 2005-08-24 15:40:25
Source: g = genus, infrao = infraorder
References: Kiessling 2004, Peczkis 1995, Marsh 1875

Age range: base of the Late/Upper Kimmeridgian to the top of the Early/Lower Tithonian or 155.70000 to 145.00000 Ma

Collections (46 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Late/Upper Oxfordian - Early/Lower Kimmeridgian161.2 - 150.8USA (Wyoming) A. sp. (126540)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1USA (Utah) Brontosaurus sp. (46439)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1USA (Wyoming) A. sp. (46460 46465 49577 57903 58510 75453 176983)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1USA (Colorado) A. sp. (38883 49621 154924)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1USA (Montana) A. sp. (49624)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0USA (New Mexico) A. sp. (38867)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0USA (Colorado) A. ajax (39376) A. ajax, A. laticollis (13341) A. sp. (11611 70028)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0USA (Utah) A. sp. (58514 96826)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0USA (Arizona) A. sp. (70024)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0USA (Wyoming) A. sp. (22648 39339 39342 48837 49627 49628 49636 55320 55486 57894 57896 58509 58512 192748) A. sp., A. louisae (52815)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian - Early/Lower Tithonian155.7 - 145.0USA (Colorado) A. sp. (45975)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian - Tithonian155.7 - 145.0USA (Oklahoma) A. sp. (49596 49597 56422) Brontosaurus excelsus (49338)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian - Tithonian155.7 - 145.0USA (Colorado) A. sp. (70032)
Tithonian152.1 - 145.0USA (South Dakota) A. sp. (49625 49630)
Early/Lower Tithonian150.8 - 145.0USA (Colorado) A. sp. (71476)
Early/Lower Tithonian150.8 - 145.0USA (Utah) A. sp., A. louisae (21852)