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Titanosauridae (titanosaurid)

Reptilia - Titanosauridae

Taxonomy
Titanosauridae was named by Lydekker (1885). It is not extant.

It was synonymized subjectively with Atlantosauridae by Swinton (1970) and Bonaparte (1978).

It was assigned to Homalosauropodidae by Huene (1948) and Young (1958); to Cetiosauria by Colbert (1964); to Homalosauropodoidea by Kuhn (1966); to Saurischia by Madsen and Miller (1979); to Sauropoda by Lydekker (1893), Huene (1927), Huene (1929), Huene (1933), Roxo (1937), Hoffet (1942), Kuhn (1946), Lapparent (1947), Parsch (1963) and Bonaparte (1980); to Sauropoda by Bakker (1986); to Sauropoda by McIntosh (1997); to Sauropoda by Lydekker (1885), Marsh (1895), Marsh (1896), Marsh (1898), Huene (1927), Huene (1927), Huene (1929), Swinton (1936), Gilmore (1946), Romer (1956), Huene (1959), Romer (1966), Reig (1970), Rozhdestvensky (1977), Galton (1977), Ostrom (1980), Russell (1984), Carroll (1988), McIntosh (1990), Benton (1990), Jacobs et al. (1993), Hunt et al. (1995) and Dong (1998); to Titanosauroidea by Upchurch (1995), Upchurch (1995), Upchurch (1997) and Salgado (2003); to Sauropodomorpha by Powell (1987) and Powell (2003); and to Titanosauria by Bonaparte and Coria (1993), Bonaparte (1996), Salgado et al. (1997), Bonaparte (1999), Santucci and Bertini (2001), Smith et al. (2001), Calvo and González Riga (2003), González-Riga (2003), de Almeida et al. (2004), Salgado and Coria (2005), Apesteguía (2005), Novas et al. (2005), Moser et al. (2006), Calvo et al. (2007), Calvo et al. (2007) and González Riga et al. (2009).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1869Hipselosaurus Gervais p. 215
1869Hipselosaurus priscus Gervais p. 215
1869Hypselosaurus Matheron p. 370
1869Hypselosaurus priscus Matheron p. 370
1869Hypselosaurus Matheron p. 790
1869Hypselosaurus priscus Matheron p. 790
1873Hypselosaurus priscus Gervais p. 469
1885Titanosauridae Lydekker p. 37
1890Hypselosaurus Zittel p. 766
1893Titanosauridae Lydekker p. 3
1895Titanosauridae Marsh
1896Titanosauridae Marsh p. 242
1898Titanosauridae Marsh p. 158
1900Hypselosaurus priscus Depéret p. 637
1900Hypselosaurus Depéret pp. 638-639
1901Hypselosaurus priscus Gautier p. 113
1901Hypselosaurus Gautier p. 115
1908Hypselosaurus Huene p. 348
1909Hypselosaurus Huene p. 15
1911Hypselosaurus von Zittel p. 288
1924Hypselosaurus priscus Joleaud p. 44
1927Titanosauridae Huene p. 125
1927Hypselosaurus Huene p. 126
1927Titanosauridae Huene p. 256
1927Hypselosaurus Huene p. 270
1927Hypselosaurus priscus Huene p. 270
1927Titanosauridae Huene p. 467
1927Hypselosaurus Huene p. 469
1928Hypselosaurus Nopcsa p. 184
1929Hypselosaurus priscus Huene p. 94
1929Hypselosaurus Huene p. 107
1929Titanosauridae Huene p. 155
1931Hypselosaurus priscus Jepsen p. 13
1932Hypselosaurus priscus Stromer p. 6
1933Titanosauridae Huene p. 70
1936Titanosauridae Swinton p. 209
1937Titanosauridae Roxo p. 65
1941Hypselosaurus Huene p. 90
1941Hypselosaurus priscus Huene p. 90
1942Titanosauridae Hoffet p. 53
1946Titanosauridae Gilmore p. 29
1946Hypselosaurus Gilmore p. 30
1946Titanosauridae Kuhn p. 66
1947Titanosauridae Lapparent p. 17
1947Hypselosaurus priscus Lapparent p. 21
1948Titanosauridae Huene p. 93
1948Hypselosaurus priscus Lapparent p. 1186
1956Titanosauridae Romer p. 621
1956Hypselosaurus Romer p. 622
1958Titanosauridae Young p. 25
1959Titanosauridae Huene p. 121
1960Hypselosaurus Bataller p. 159
1960Hypselosaurus priscus Jeletzky p. 34
1961Hypselosaurus priscus Schwarz et al. p. 346
1963Titanosauridae Parsch p. 4
1964Titanosauridae Colbert p. 22 fig. 6
1964Hypselosaurus Tatarinov p. 552
1965Hypselosaurus Young p. 169
1965Hypselosaurus priscus Young p. 169
1966Titanosauridae Kuhn p. 99
1966Hypselosaurus Romer p. 370
1966Titanosauridae Romer p. 370
1967Hypselosaurus priscus Lapparent p. 10
1970Titanosauridae Reig p. 279
1970Hypselosaurus Steel p. 76
1970Hypselosaurus priscus Steel p. 76
1970Hypselosaurus Swinton p. 183
1971Hypselosaurus priscus Dinca et al. p. 90
1972Hypselosaurus priscus Erben p. 17
1976Hypselosaurus priscus Dughi and Sirugue p. 3
1977Titanosauridae Galton p. 230
1977Hypselosaurus priscus Krampitz et al. p. 583
1977Titanosauridae Rozhdestvensky p. 113
1978Antarctosauridae Olshevsky p. 27
1979Titanosauridae Madsen and Miller p. 5
1980Titanosauridae Bonaparte p. 82
1980Titanosauridae Ostrom p. 22
1981Hypselosaurus priscus Borgomanero and Leonardi p. 215
1983Hypselosaurus Clottes and Raynaud pp. 10-11
1983Hypselosaurus priscus Clottes and Raynaud p. 10
1984Hypselosaurus priscus Brinkmann p. 297
1984Titanosauridae Russell p. 29
1985Hypselosaurus priscus Penner p. 668
1986Titanosauridae Bakker p. 461
1986Hypselosaurus priscus Ginsburg p. 144
1986Hypselosaurus Sanz p. 85
1986Hypselosaurus priscus Villatte et al. p. 93
1987Hypselosaurus Casanovas et al. p. 97
1987Hypselosaurus priscus Casanovas et al. p. 100
1987Titanosauridae Powell p. 148
1988Hypselosaurus Carroll
1988Titanosauridae Carroll
1988Hypselosaurus priscus Masriera and Ullastre p. 74
1989Hypselosaurus Buffetaut p. 438
1989Hypselosaurus priscus Le Loeuff et al. p. 851
1990Titanosauridae Benton p. 19
1990Hypselosaurus McIntosh p. 57
1990Titanosauridae McIntosh p. 394
1990Hypselosaurus McIntosh p. 398
1990Hypselosaurus priscus McIntosh p. 398
1991Hypselosaurus Buffetaut et al. p. 34
1991Hypselosaurus priscus Buffetaut et al. p. 34
1992Hypselosaurus priscus Buffetaut p. 130
1993Titanosauridae Bonaparte and Coria
1993Hypselosaurus priscus Currie and Eberth p. 139
1993Titanosauridae Jacobs et al. p. 524
1994Hypselosaurus priscus Britt and Naylor p. 257
1995Titanosauridae Hunt et al. p. 264
1995Titanosauridae Upchurch p. 253
1995Hypselosaurus Upchurch p. 380
1996Titanosauridae Bonaparte p. 102
1996Hypselosaurus Jacobs et al. p. 602
1997Hypselosaurus priscus Erickson p. 4
1997Titanosauridae McIntosh p. 657
1997Hypselosaurus Sahni p. 364
1997Titanosauridae Salgado et al. p. 20
1997Titanosauridae Upchurch p. 82A
1998Titanosauridae Dong p. 85
1999Titanosauridae Bonaparte pp. 160-161
2001Hypselosaurus priscus Hirsch p. 381
2001Titanosauridae Santucci and Bertini p. 308
2001Titanosauridae Smith et al. p. 1705 fig. 3
2003Titanosauridae Calvo and González Riga p. 335
2003Titanosauridae González-Riga
2003Titanosauridae Powell p. 21
2003Titanosauridae Salgado p. 17 fig. 1
2004Titanosauridae de Almeida et al. p. 242
2005Titanosauridae Apesteguía pp. 261-262
2005Titanosauridae Novas et al. p. 37
2005Titanosauridae Salgado and Coria p. 435
2006Titanosauridae Moser et al. p. 46
2007Titanosauridae Calvo et al. p. 497 fig. 14
2007Titanosauridae Calvo et al. p. 533 fig. 3
2007Hypselosaurus priscus Malkani
2009Titanosauridae González Riga et al. p. 144 fig. 11

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
RankNameAuthor
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Eusaurischia
Sauropodomorpha(Huene 1932)
Massopoda
Sauropodiformes
Sauropoda()
Eusauropoda
Neosauropoda
Macronaria
Titanosauriformes
Somphospondyli
Titanosauria
familyTitanosauridae
familyTitanosauridae

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
R. Lydekker 1893Sauropodous Dinosaurs in which the caudal vertebrae, with the excepcion [sic] of the firt, are procoelous, the presacrals opisthocoelous, and the lumbars without lateral cavities; the superior extremities of the chevron-bones being open.
F. v. Huene 1948First caudal biconvex, all vertebrae in front of it opisthocoelous, behind it procoelous. No bifid neural spines; cavernous, lamellar structure of neural arches; quadrate ham-shaped; at least 12 cervicals, 6 sacrals. Originating from Cetiosaurs. Upper Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous.
L. Salgado et al. 1997Absence of hyposphene-hypantrum articulation in posterior trunk vertebrae. Six sacral vertebrae. Anterior caudals strongly procoelous having "ball and socket" articular faces. Semilunar sternal plates. Claw on manual digit I absent. Manual phalanges absent. Preacetabular lobe of ilium nearly horizontal, outwardly projected.
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteinfrao
Entire body: yesinfrao
Adult length: 10 to < 100infrao
Adult width: 10 to < 100infrao
Adult height: 10 to < 100infrao
Maximum body mass: 10000 kgg
Minimum body mass: 3000 kgg
Thickness: thickinfrao
Architecture: compact or denseinfrao
Form: sphericalinfrao
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partsinfrao
Grouping: gregariousinfrao
Environment: terrestrialinfrao
Locomotion: actively mobileinfrao
Life habit: ground dwellinginfrao
Diet: herbivoreinfrao
Reproduction: oviparousinfrao
Dispersal: direct/internalinfrao
Dispersal 2: mobileinfrao
Created: 2004-12-14 12:49:10
Modified: 2004-12-14 14:49:10
Source: g = genus, infrao = infraorder
References: Peczkis 1995, Marsh 1875

Age range: base of the Late/Upper Bajocian to the top of the Early/Lower Eocene or 171.60000 to 48.60000 Ma

Collections (290 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Late/Upper Bajocian - Early/Lower Bathonian171.6 - 164.7France Megaloolithus sp. (58416)
Early/Lower Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8France (Haute-Normandie) Streptospondylus cuvieri (48856)
Early/Lower Tithonian150.8 - 145.0France (Poitou-Charentes) Megaloolithidae indet. (164377)
Middle Berriasian145.0 - 140.2United Kingdom (England) Megaloolithidae indet. (28994)
Early/Lower Cretaceous145.0 - 100.5Kenya Titanosauridae indet. (135809)
Early/Lower Berriasian - Late/Upper Albian145.0 - 99.6Mali (Gao) Sauropoda indet. (25201)
Cretaceous145.0 - 66.0Brazil (Mato Grosso) Titanosauridae indet. (58812)
Valanginian - Hauterivian139.8 - 129.4Spain (Zaragoza) Megaloolithidae indet. (61330)
Hauterivian132.9 - 129.4South Korea (Gyeongsangnam-do) Titanosauridae indet. (52863)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Malawi (Northern) Sauropodomorpha indet. (38916) Titanosauridae indet. (38912)

Youngest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state PBDB collection number
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Spain (Cataluña) Dinosauria indet. (55390) Megaloolithus baghensis (148950 167945 171098) Megaloolithus mamillare (183093) Megaloolithus mamillare, Hypselosaurus sp. (36381) Megaloolithus siruguei (13331) Megaloolithus sp. (167946 171103 171111 171123 171124) Megaloolithus trempii (36380 36728 36731) Titanosauridae indet. (59090) Titanosauridae indet., Megaloolithus siruguei (38893)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Argentina (Río Negro) Titanosauridae indet. (31079)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Romania (Hunedoara) Megaloolithidae indet. (67818 138826) Megaloolithus siruguei (26369) Titanosauridae indet. (67811)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0France (Languedoc-Roussillon) Dinosauria indet. (53481)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Spain (Aragón) Megaloolithidae indet. (45437)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0France (Bouches-du-Rhône) Megaloolithus mammilare, Megaloolithus mamillare (61624) Megaloolithus sp., Megaloolithus mammilare (178881) Megaloolithus sp., Megaloolithus petralta, Megaloolithus mammilare (65382) Titanosauridae indet., Megaloolithus mamillare (47893)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0France (Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur) Megaloolithus petralta, Dinosauria indet. (35933) Megaloolithus sp., Hypselosaurus priscus (59780)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Brazil (Minas Gerais) Megaloolithidae indet. (64133) Titanosauridae indet. (51663 51958 51959 51960)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0India (Tamil Nadu) Titanosauridae indet. (53922)
Late/Upper Paleocene - Early/Lower Eocene58.7 - 48.6Peru (Puno) Ornithopoda indet. (28230)