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Iguanodon

Reptilia -

Taxonomy
Iguanodon was named by Mantell (1825). Its type is Iguanodon anglicum.

It was assigned to Ichthyosauroidea by Fitzinger (1826); to Reptilia by Mantell (1825) and Nöggerath (1826); to Pachypodes by Meyer (1845); to Megalosaurinidae by d'Orbigny (1849); to Dinosauria by Owen (1842) and Quenstedt (1852); to Dinosauria by Pictet (1853); to Deinosauria by Mantell (1854); to Therosauria by Haeckel (1866); to Dinosaurii by Quenstedt (1867); to Ornithoscelida by Williston (1878); to Ornithopeda by Meunier (1883); to Ornithopoda by Dollo (1884) and Dollo (1885); to Dinosauria by Owen (1851), Owen (1855), Owen (1858), Owen (1861), Owen (1861), Owen (1872), Lydekker (1877) and Mansel-Pleydell (1888); to Ornithopoda by Quenstedt (1882) and Gadow (1897); to Kalodontidae by Nopcsa (1902); to Ornithopoda by Hulke (1887), Winkler (1893), Sauvage (1896), Gadow (1898), Gadow (1901) and Sauvage (1914); to Orthopoda by Cope (1866) and Joleaud (1922); to Iguanodontinae by Tornier (1913), Nopcsa (1928), Huene (1934) and Huene (1934); to Dinosauria by Yuryev (1954); to Ornithischia by Gardiner (1982); to Hadrosauria by Horner (1990); to Iguanodontoidea by Norman (1984), Sereno (1986), Norman (2004), Pereda Suberbiola et al. (2006), Paul (2008) and Ramírez-Velasco et al. (2012); to Iguanodontidae by Gervais (1852), Gervais (1853), Gervais (1859), Cope (1869), Huxley (1870), Dollo (1882), Sauvage (1882), Marsh (1882), Dollo (1884), Marsh (1884), Marsh (1885), Lydekker (1888), Lydekker (1888), Dollo (1889), Zittel (1890), Sauvage (1895), Marsh (1895), Marsh (1896), Van Den Broeck (1900), Sauvage (1900), Mansel-Pleydell (1902), Huene (1909), von Zittel (1911), Matthew (1915), Lull (1924), Swinton (1936), Swinton (1936), Lapparent (1947), Rozhdestvensky (1952), Romer (1956), Huene (1959), Bataller (1960), Delair (1960), Lapparent (1960), Parsch (1963), Tatarinov (1964), Kuhn (1964), Romer (1966), Swinton (1970), Thulborn (1974), Galton (1974), Galton (1974), Taquet (1975), Paton (1975), Thulborn (1975), Rozhdestvensky (1977), Madsen and Miller (1979), Jurcsak and Popa (1979), Galton and Jensen (1979), Norman (1980), Buffetaut et al. (1980), Molnar (1980), Bartholomai and Molnar (1981), Jurcsák (1982), Santafé et al. (1982), Weishampel and Weishampel (1983), Zhao (1983), Buscalioni and Sanz (1984), Milner and Norman (1984), Russell (1984), Sanz (1986), Casanovas et al. (1987), Buscalioni and Sanz (1987), Brinkmann (1988), Carroll (1988), Norman (1989), Weishampel and Bjork (1989), Norman and Weishampel (1990), Norman (1990), Grigorescu (1992), Martin and Buffetaut (1992), Galton (1994), Vickaryous and Ryan (1997), Ruiz-Omeñaca et al. (1998), Blows (1998), Godefroit et al. (1998), Norman and Sues (2000), Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo (2003), Grigorescu (2003), Kobayashi and Azuma (2003), You et al. (2003), Sánchez-Hernández et al. (2007), Ruiz-Omeñaca et al. (2007), Paul (2007), Wang et al. (2011), Zhang et al. (2013) and Norman (2014); and to Hadrosauriformes by You et al. (2005), McDonald et al. (2010), McDonald et al. (2010), Sanz et al. (2014), Gasulla et al. (2014) and Verdú et al. (2015).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1824Iguanosaurus Anonymous p. 273
1825Iguanodon Mantell
1826Iguanodon Fitzinger p. 9
1826Hikanodon Nöggerath p. 18
1828Iguanosaurus Ritgen p. 273
1842Iguanodon Owen p. 120
1843Therosaurus Fitzinger
1845Iguanodon Meyer p. 281
1849Iguanodon d'Orbigny p. 206
1850Heterosaurus Cornuel p. 703
1851Streptospondylus recentior Owen
1851Iguanodon Owen p. 105
1852Iguanodon Gervais p. 261
1852Iguanodon Quenstedt p. 113
1853Iguanodon Gervais p. 471
1853Iguanodon Pictet p. 470
1854Iguanodon Mantell p. 684
1855Iguanodon Owen p. 1
1858Iguanodon Owen p. 1
1859Iguanodon Gervais p. 467
1861Iguanodon Owen p. 27
1866Iguanodon Cope p. 317
1866Iguanodon Haeckel p. CXXXVI
1867Iguanodon Quenstedt p. 144
1869Iguanodon Cope p. 91
1870Iguanodon Huxley p. 35
1872Iguanodon Owen p. 1
1877Iguanodon Lydekker p. 40
1878Iguanodon Williston p. 45
1879Vectisaurus Hulke p. 294
1882Iguanodon Dollo
1882Vectisaurus Dollo
1882Iguanodon Marsh
1882Vectisaurus Marsh
1882Iguanodon Quenstedt p. 188
1882Iguanodon Sauvage p. 35
1882Vectisaurus Sauvage p. 35
1883Iguanodon Meunier p. 338
1884Iguanodon Dollo p. 3
1884Vectisaurus Dollo p. 298
1884Iguanodon Marsh p. 68
1884Vectisaurus Marsh p. 68
1885Iguanodon Dollo p. 36
1885Iguanodon Marsh p. 764
1885Vectisaurus Marsh p. 764
1887Iguanodon Hulke
1888Iguanodon Lydekker p. 46
1888Vectisaurus Lydekker pp. 52-53
1888Iguanodon Lydekker p. 195
1888Iguanodon Mansel-Pleydell p. 34
1889Iguanodon Dollo p. 679
1890Vectisaurus Zittel p. 743
1890Iguanodon Zittel p. 758
1893Iguanodon Winkler p. 111
1895Iguanodon Marsh
1895Vectisaurus Marsh
1895Iguanodon Sauvage p. 470
1896Iguanodon Marsh p. 244
1896Vectisaurus Marsh p. 244
1896Iguanodon Sauvage p. 48
1897Iguanodon Gadow p. 205
1898Iguanodon Gadow p. 22
1900Iguanodon Sauvage p. 417
1900Iguanodon Van Den Broeck p. 84
1901Iguanodon Gadow p. 427
1902Iguanodon Mansel-Pleydell p. lxxxii
1902Iguanodon Nopcsa pp. 150-151
1909Iguanodon Huene p. 16
1909Vectisaurus Huene p. 17
1911Iguanodon von Zittel p. 290
1911Uestisaurus von Zittel p. 294
1913Iguanodon Tornier p. 371
1914Iguanodon Sauvage p. 255
1915Iguanodon Matthew p. 75 fig. 25
1922Struthopus Ballerstedt p. 91
1922Iguanodon Joleaud p. 62
1924Iguanodon Lull p. 239
1928Iguanodon Nopcsa p. 184
1934Iguanodon Huene p. 17
1936Iguanodon Swinton p. 214
1936Vectisaurus Swinton p. 216
1936Iguanodon Swinton p. 577
1947Iguanodon Lapparent p. 32
1952Iguanodon Rozhdestvensky p. 1244
1954Jguanodon Yuryev p. 204
1956Iguanodon Romer p. 629
1956Vectisaurus Romer p. 629
1958Struthopus Kuhn p. 26
1959Iguanodon Huene p. 122
1960Iguanodon Bataller p. 160
1960Iguanodon Delair p. 84
1960Iguanodon Lapparent p. 42
1963Struthopus Kuhn p. 105
1963Iguanodon Parsch p. 7
1964Iguanodon Kuhn p. 10
1964Vectisaurus Kuhn p. 13
1964Iguanodon Tatarinov p. 558
1964Vectisaurus Tatarinov p. 559
1966Iguanodon Romer p. 370
1966Vectisaurus Romer p. 370
1970Iguanodon Swinton p. 200
1974Iguanodon Galton pp. 151-152
1974Iguanodon Thulborn p. 172
1974Vectisaurus Thulborn p. 172
1975Vectisaurus Galton p. 748
1975Iguanodon Paton p. 17
1975Iguanodon Taquet p. 507
1975Iguanodon Thulborn p. 134
1976Vectisaurus Galton pp. 976, 982-3
1977Iguanodon Rozhdestvensky p. 113
1979Iguanodon Galton and Jensen p. 3
1979Iguanodon Jurcsak and Popa p. 52
1979Iguanodon Madsen and Miller p. 5
1980Iguanodon Buffetaut et al. p. 201
1980Iguanodon Molnar p. 137
1980Vectisaurus Molnar p. 137
1980Iguanodon Norman p. 13
1981Iguanodon Bartholomai and Molnar p. 343
1981Vectisaurus Bartholomai and Molnar p. 343
1982Iguanodon Gardiner p. 222
1982Iguanodon Jurcsák p. 179
1982Iguanodon Santafé et al. p. 99
1983Iguanodon Weishampel and Weishampel p. 44
1983Vectisaurus Weishampel and Weishampel p. 44
1983Iguanodon Zhao p. 304
1984Iguanodon Buscalioni and Sanz p. 14
1984Iguanodon Milner and Norman p. 146
1984Vectisaurus Milner and Norman p. 146
1984Iguanodon Norman pp. 342-344 fig. 7
1984Iguanodon Russell p. 23
1986Iguanodon Sanz p. 83
1986Iguanodon Sereno
1987Iguanodon Buscalioni and Sanz p. 66
1987Iguanodon Casanovas et al. p. 102
1988Iguanodon Brinkmann p. 62
1988Iguanodon Carroll
1988Vectisaurus Carroll
1989Iguanodon Norman p. 61 fig. 1
1989Iguanodon Weishampel and Bjork p. 57
1990Iguanodon Horner pp. 184-185
1990Iguanodon Norman p. 153 fig. 11.7
1990Iguanodon Norman and Weishampel p. 529 fig. 25.36
1992Iguanodon Grigorescu p. 147
1992Iguanodon Martin and Buffetaut p. 68
1994Iguanodon Galton p. 265
1997Iguanodon Vickaryous and Ryan p. 490
1998Iguanodon Blows p. 31
1998Iguanodon Godefroit et al. p. 50 fig. 38
1998Iguanodon Ruiz-Omeñaca et al. p. 275
2000Iguanodon Norman and Sues p. 463
2002Heterosaurus Sepkoski, Jr.
2003Iguanodon Grigorescu p. 99
2003Vectisaurus Grigorescu p. 99
2003Iguanodon Kobayashi and Azuma p. 172
2003Iguanodon Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo p. 297
2003Iguanodon You et al. p. 351 fig. 3
2004Iguanodon Norman p. 415
2005Iguanodon You et al. p. 789 fig. 4
2006Iguanodon Pereda Suberbiola et al. p. 227
2007Iguanodon Paul p. 74
2007Iguanodon Ruiz-Omeñaca et al. p. 9
2007Iguanodon Sánchez-Hernández et al. p. 206
2008Iguanodon Paul p. 199
2010Iguanodon McDonald et al. p. 33 fig. 39
2010Iguanodon McDonald et al. p. 808 fig. 10
2011Iguanodon Wang et al. p. 155 fig. 11
2012Iguanodon Ramírez-Velasco et al. p. 390
2013Iguanodon Zhang et al. p. 1345
2014Iguanodon Gasulla et al. p. 19
2014Iguanodon Norman p. 37 fig. 2.30
2014Iguanodon Sanz et al. p. 76
2015Iguanodon Verdú et al. p. 252

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
RankNameAuthor
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Ornithischia()
Neornithischia()
Ornithopoda()
Iguanodontia()
Dryomorpha
Ankylopollexia
Styracosterna
Hadrosauriformes
genusIguanodon

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
R. Owen 1855Denftes incrassati, marginibus lammellosis.
L. Dollo 1882Edentulous premaxilla. A single row of teeth in the maxillae and mandible. Opisthocoelous cervical vertebrae, biplanar dorsals, amphicoelous caudals. Even sternum. Reduced forelimbs. Five functional digits in the manus, the first transformed into a spike. Pubis is projected freely forward. Postpubis shorter than the ischium. Femur longer than the tibia. Three functional digits in the pes with styloid rudiment of the first toe.
G. S. Paul 2008As for the type and only determinate species.
F. J. Verdú et al. 2015In agreement with (mainly) Norman (2012), Iguanodon shows the following autapomorphies: (I) massive, robust, and straight, or very slightly arched dentary ramus (Fig. 4AeB); (II) eight fused sacral vertebrae forming the sacrum (one sacro-dorsal plus seven truly sacral vertebrae) (modified from Paul (2008) and Norman (2012); see remarks) (Fig. 4C); (III) coracoid massive and dish-shaped, bearing a coracoid foramen that forms a pronounced notch on the scapulocoracoid suture when viewed externally (Fig. 4D); (IV) pollex long and conical with a slightly medial curvature along its length (Fig. 4E); (V) the postacetabular blade of the ilium narrows distally in profile view and bears a broad, elongated brevis shelf and fossa that is shallowly arched and bounded laterally by a prominent ridge (Fig. 4F); (VII) anterior pubic ramus is stout with a comparatively narrow, relatively elongated and transversely thickened proximal portion, which becomes laterally compressed distally and expands both dorsally and ventrally (Fig. 4G–H).