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Stegosauria

Reptilia -

Taxonomy
Stegosauria was named by Marsh (1877). It is not extant.

It was reranked as the order Stegosauria by Dollo (1885) and Bakker and Galton (1974); it was reranked as the unranked clade Stegosauria by Baur (1887), Sánchez-Hernández et al. (2007), Butler et al. (2008) and Han et al. (2012); it was synonymized subjectively with Ornithopoda by Lydekker (1888); it was reranked as the superfamily Stegosauria by Zittel (1890) and Woodward (1898); it was reranked as the infraorder Stegosauri by Gadow (1897); it was synonymized subjectively with Stegosauroidea by Hay (1902); it was reranked as the family Stegosauria by Huene (1954); it was reranked as the infraorder Stegosauria by Ulansky (2014).

It was assigned to Reptilia by Marsh (1877) and Marsh (1877); to Dinosauria by Marsh (1884) and Dollo (1885); to Dinosauria by Marsh (1881), Marsh (1882), Dollo (1884), Marsh (1885) and Lydekker (1885); to Predentata by Marsh (1894), Marsh (1895) and Marsh (1896); to Ornithopoda by Woodward (1898); to Orthopoda by Baur (1887), Zittel (1890), Gadow (1897) and Lull (1912); to Praedentata by Hennig (1915); to Ornithischia by Swinton (1934); to Enoplosauria by Swinton (1970); to Ornithischia by Bakker and Galton (1974); to Orbitoscuta by Bakker (1986); to Ornithischia by Lull (1915), Matthew (1915), Lull (1921), Lull (1924), Roxo (1937), Kuhn (1946), Lapparent (1947), Romer (1956), Delair (1960), Parsch (1963), Tatarinov (1964), Kuhn (1964), Romer (1966), Thulborn (1971), Delair (1973), Krebs (1974), Bonaparte (1978), Benton (1979), Ostrom (1980), McIntosh (1981), Russell (1984), Maryanska and Osmólska (1985), Carroll (1988), Galton (1990) and Chure et al. (2006); to Eurypoda by Sereno (1986), Benton (1990), Sereno (1998), Sereno (1999), Galton and Upchurch (2004), Norman et al. (2004), Maidment et al. (2006) and Maidment et al. (2008); to Thyreophora by Sánchez-Hernández et al. (2007) and Han et al. (2012); and to Thyreophora by Huene (1954), Weishampel (2004), Butler et al. (2008) and Ulansky (2014).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1874Craterosaurus Seeley
1874Craterosaurus pottonensis Seeley p. 692
1876Craterosaurus pottonensis Sauvage p. 440
1877Stegosauria Marsh
1879Stegosaurus sulcatus Marsh p. 415 figs. Pl. 8, fig. 4-6
1881Stegosauria Marsh
1882Stegosauria Marsh
1884Stegosauria Dollo p. 298
1884Stegosauria Marsh p. 68
1885Stegosauria Dollo p. 35
1885Stegosauria Lydekker p. 37
1885Stegosauria Marsh p. 764
1887Stegosauria Baur p. 101
1887Omosaurus durobrivensis Hulke p. 376 fig. 2
1890Craterosaurus pottonensis Woodward and Sherborn p. 223
1890Omosaurus durobrivensis Woodward and Sherborn p. 253
1890Craterosaurus Zittel p. 727
1890Stegosauria Zittel p. 740
1890Omosaurus durobrivensis Zittel p. 748
1893Omosaurus durobrivensis Seeley p. 54
1894Stegosauria Marsh
1895Stegosauria Marsh
1896Omosaurus durobrisensis Mansel-Pleydell p. 119
1896Stegosaurus sulcatus Marsh p. 193
1896Stegosauria Marsh p. 242
1897Stegosauri Gadow p. 205
1898Stegosauria Woodward p. 209
1901Omosaurus leedsi Seeley
1902Stegosaurus sulcatus Hay p. 496
1909Craterosaurus Huene p. 16
1910Omosaurus vetustus Huene p. 76 fig. 7
1910Omosaurus durobrivensis Lull p. 376
1911Stegosaurus durobrinensis Nopcsa p. 40
1911Omosaurus vetustus Nopcsa p. 42
1911Craterosaurus von Zittel p. 283
1912Stegosauria Lull p. 210
1914Stegosaurus sulcatus Gilmore p. 109 figs. 18, 20-21
1915Stegosauria Hennig p. 10
1915Dacentrurus durobrivensis Hennig p. 11
1915Dacentrurus leedsi Hennig p. 11
1915Dacentrurus vetustus Hennig p. 12
1915Stegosauria Lull p. 117
1915Stegosauria Matthew p. 32
1921Stegosauria Lull p. 123
1924Stegosauria Lull p. 241
1924Omosaurus durobrivensis Lull p. 242
1928Craterosaurus Nopcsa p. 185
1934Stegosauria Swinton p. 45
1937Stegosauria Roxo p. 44
1946Stegosauria Kuhn p. 66
1947Stegosauria Lapparent pp. 17-18
1954Stegosauria Huene p. 51
1956Omosaurus durobrivensis Leeds p. 35
1956Stegosauria Romer p. 632
1956Craterosaurus Romer p. 634
1957Lexovisaurus durobrivensis Hoffstetter pp. 543-545
1957Omosaurus vetustus Hoffstetter pp. 543-544
1959Chialingosaurus Young pp. 1-2 figs. 1-6
1959Chialingosaurus kuani Young pp. 1-2 figs. 1-6
1959Chialingosaurus chuhsienensis Young p. 1154
1960Stegosauria Delair p. 86
1963Stegosauria Parsch p. 4
1964Stegosauria Kuhn p. 32
1964Chialingosaurus Kuhn p. 33
1964Chialingosaurus kuani Kuhn p. 33
1964Craterosaurus Kuhn p. 33
1964Craterosaurus pottonensis Kuhn p. 33
1964Dacentrurus vetustus Kuhn p. 35
1964Lexovisaurus durobrivensis Kuhn p. 35
1964Lexovisaurus leedsi Kuhn p. 35
1964Stegosauria Tatarinov p. 572
1964Chialingosaurus Tatarinov p. 573
1964Craterosaurus Tatarinov p. 573
1966Chialingosaurus Romer p. 370
1966Craterosaurus Romer p. 370
1966Stegosauria Romer p. 370
1970Stegosauria Swinton p. 117
1970Stegosaurus durobrivensis Swinton p. 241
1970Chialingosaurus Swinton p. 244
1971Stegosauria Thulborn p. 77 fig. 4
1973Stegosauria Delair p. 5
1974Stegosauria Bakker and Galton p. 171
1974Stegosauria Krebs p. 22
1978Stegosauria Bonaparte p. 331
1979Stegosauria Benton p. 143
1980Lexovisaurus durobrivensis Galton and Boiné p. 31
1980Lexovisaurus vetustus Galton et al. p. 41
1980Stegosauria Ostrom p. 23
1981Craterosaurus Galton p. 42
1981Craterosaurus pottonensis Galton pp. 42-43
1981Stegosauria McIntosh p. 35
1982Stegosaurus sulcatus Galton p. 144
1982Lexovisaurus durobrivensis Galton pp. 145-146
1983Chialingosaurus Dong et al. p. 95
1983Chialingosaurus kuani Dong et al. p. 96 figs. Pl. 32-34
1983Lexovisaurus durobrivensis Galton p. 2
1983Monkonosaurus Zhao p. 301
1984Chialingosaurus He p. 74
1984Chialingosaurus kuani He p. 74
1984Stegosauria Russell p. 29
1985Craterosaurus Galton p. 213 fig. 11
1985Craterosaurus pottonensis Galton p. 213 fig. 11
1985Lexovisaurus durobrivensis Galton p. 236 figs. 4, 19, 21-22
1985Lexovisaurus vetustus Galton p. 246 fig. 15
1985Stegosauria Maryanska and Osmólska pp. 139-141 fig. 1
1985Chialingosaurus kuani Zhao p. 289
1986Stegosauria Bakker p. 461
1986Stegosauria Sereno
1986Monkonosaurus lawulacus Ye et al. p. 203
1986Monkonosaurus Zhao p. 69
1986Monkonosaurus lawulacus Zhao p. 69
1986Chialingosaurus Zhou p. 36
1988Chialingosaurus Carroll
1988Craterosaurus Carroll
1988Stegosauria Carroll
1988Lexovisaurus durobrivensis Martill p. 180
1990Stegosaurus sulcatus Bakker p. 2
1990Stegosauria Benton p. 19
1990Chialingosaurus Dong p. 260
1990Chialingosaurus kuani Dong p. 260
1990Monkonosaurus Dong p. 264
1990Monkonosaurus lawulacus Dong p. 264
1990Chialingosaurus Galton
1990Chialingosaurus kuani Galton
1990Craterosaurus Galton
1990Craterosaurus pottonensis Galton
1990Lexovisaurus durobrivensis Galton
1990Stegosauria Galton
1990Lexovisaurus durobrivensis Galton pp. 185-186
1991Lexovisaurus durobrivensis Buffetaut et al. p. 24
1992Chialingosaurus kuani Dong p. 85
1992Chialingosaurus Dong p. 166
1992Monkonosaurus Dong p. 166
1992Monkonosaurus lawulacus Dong p. 166
1994Wuerhosaurus ordosensis Dong pp. 2174-2176 figs. 1-2
1994Craterosaurus Galton p. 265
1995Lexovisaurus durobrivensis Casanovas-Cladellas et al. p. 282
1997Lexovisaurus durobrivensis Smith p. 509
1998Craterosaurus Blows p. 33
1998Craterosaurus pottonensis Blows p. 33
1998Stegosauria Sereno p. 61
1999Stegosauria Sereno p. 2138 fig. 2
2001Stegosaurus sulcatus Blows pp. 138-139
2001Craterosaurus Blows p. 139
2001Craterosaurus pottonensis Blows p. 139
2001Chialingosaurus Carpenter et al. p. 73 fig. 3.14
2001Chialingosaurus kuani Carpenter et al. p. 73
2001Lexovisaurus durobrivensis Carpenter et al. p. 73
2003Craterosaurus pottonensis Pereda Suberbiola et al. p. 147
2003Monkonosaurus lawulacus Pereda Suberbiola et al. p. 147
2003Wuerhosaurus ordosensis Pereda Suberbiola et al. p. 147
2003Wuerhosaurus ordosensis Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo p. 294
2004Chialingosaurus Galton and Upchurch p. 344
2004Chialingosaurus kuani Galton and Upchurch p. 344
2004Craterosaurus Galton and Upchurch p. 344
2004Craterosaurus pottonensis Galton and Upchurch p. 344
2004Lexovisaurus durobrivensis Galton and Upchurch p. 344
2004Stegosauria Galton and Upchurch p. 344
2004Monkonosaurus Galton and Upchurch p. 345
2004Monkonosaurus lawulacus Galton and Upchurch p. 345
2004Wuerhosaurus ordosensis Galton and Upchurch p. 345
2004Stegosauria Norman et al. p. 342 fig. 15.6
2004Stegosauria Weishampel p. 323
2006Stegosauria Chure et al. p. 237
2006Stegosauria Maidment et al. p. 951 fig. 8
2007Craterosaurus Escaso et al. p. 158
2007Lexovisaurus durobrivensis Escaso et al. p. 158
2007Craterosaurus pottonensis Escaso et al. p. 159
2007Craterosaurus pottonensis Naish and Martill p. 496
2007Lexovisaurus durobrivensis Norman et al. p. 866
2007Stegosauria Sánchez-Hernández et al. p. 204
2007Monkonosaurus lawulacus Wings et al. p. 116
2007Wuerhosaurus ordosensis Wings et al. p. 116
2008Stegosauria Butler et al. p. 20 figs. 2-4
2008Stegosauria Maidment et al. p. 390 fig. 11
2008Craterosaurus Naish and Martill p. 616
2008Craterosaurus pottonensis Naish and Martill p. 616
2008Lexovisaurus durobrivensis Naish and Martill p. 616
2012Stegosauria Han et al. p. 1391 fig. 14
2013Chialingosaurus kuani Pereda-Suberbiola et al. p. 70
2013Lexovisaurus durobrivensis Ruiz-Omeñaca et al. p. 39
2013Stegosaurus sulcatus Xing et al. p. 62
2014Stegosauria Ulansky p. 4
2014Amargastegos Ulansky p. 5
2014Amargastegos brevicollus Ulansky p. 5
2014Chialingosaurus Ulansky p. 5
2014Chialingosaurus kuani Ulansky p. 5
2014Craterosaurus Ulansky p. 5
2014Craterosaurus pottonensis Ulansky p. 5
2014Eoplophysis Ulansky p. 5
2014Eoplophysis vetustus Ulansky p. 5
2014Ferganastegos Ulansky p. 5
2014Ferganastegos callovicus Ulansky p. 5
2014Monkonosaurus Ulansky p. 5
2014Monkonosaurus lawulacus Ulansky p. 5
2014Lexovisaurus durobrivensis Ulansky p. 6
2014Stegosaurus sulcatus Ulansky p. 6
2014Saldamosaurus Ulansky p. 7
2014Saldamosaurus tuvensis Ulansky p. 7
2014Stegosaurus sulcatus Ulansky p. 8
2014Wuerhosaurus ordosensis Ulansky p. 8
2014Eoplophysis Ulansky p. 13
2014Eoplophysis vetustus Ulansky p. 13
2014Lexovisaurus durobrivensis Ulansky p. 13
2014Chialingosaurus kuani Ulansky p. 15
2014Ferganastegos Ulansky p. 15
2014Ferganastegos callovicus Ulansky p. 15
2014Saldamosaurus Ulansky p. 18
2014Saldamosaurus tuvensis Ulansky p. 18
2014Amargastegos Ulansky p. 23
2014Amargastegos brevicollus Ulansky p. 23
2014Wuerhosaurus ordosensis Ulansky p. 23
2014Monkonosaurus lawulacus Ulansky p. 25
2016Stegosaurus sulcatus Galton and Carpenter p. 186
2018Chialingosaurus kauni Hao et al. p. 431

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
RankNameAuthor
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Ornithischia()
Genasauria
Thyreophora()
Stegosauria()
Stegosauria()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
K. A. v. Zittel 1890Wirbel platycöl oder amphieöl und wie die Extremitäten-knochen massiv, ohne innere Hohlräume. Schädel ohne Hörner. Vorderbeine sehr kurz, Hinterbeine ungemein kräftig, hoch. Schambein mit Postpubis. Füsse plantigrad, mit hufartigen Endphalangen. Hautskelet sehr stark entwickelt, aus langen Stacheln und Knochenplatten bestehend; zuweilen einen geschlossenen Rückenpanzer bildend.
R. S. Lull 1924Armored quadrupedal dinosaurs; skull small, with anterior part of mouth toothless; functional teeth in single row; large, forwardly placed, anterior nares, but small infraorbital fenestrae; upper temporal fenestra lacking in the Nodosauridae (Ankylosauridae}, with their broad, heavily armored skull; vertebrae amphicoelous or platycoelous and, together with extremities, very massive; fore limbs shorter than hind; feet semi-plantigrade, digits three to five, with short, hoof-like unguals; dermal armor very strongly developed, which has compelled the assumption of the quadrupedal posture as a secondary adaptation for the carrying of the great weight of the armor.
Measurements
partNmean
scapula diameter1740.0

Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Entire body: yeso
Adult length: 10 to < 100o
Adult width: 1.0 to < 10o
Adult height: 1.0 to < 10o
Maximum body mass: 10000 kgg
Minimum body mass: 1000 kgg
Architecture: compact or denseo
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partso
Grouping: gregariouso
Environment: terrestrialo
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: ground dwellingo
Diet: herbivoreo
Reproduction: oviparouso
Dispersal: direct/internalo
Dispersal 2: mobileo
Created: 2004-12-14 12:50:52
Modified: 2004-12-14 14:50:52
Source: g = genus, o = order
References: Kiessling 2004, Peczkis 1995, Marsh 1875

Age range: base of the Toarcian to the top of the Maastrichtian or 182.70000 to 66.00000 Ma

Collections (217 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Toarcian182.7 - 174.1China (Sichuan) Stegosauria indet. (140254)
Aalenian174.1 - 170.3United Kingdom (England) Sauropoda indet. (61677)
Middle Jurassic174.1 - 163.5China (Shaanxi) Deltapodus sp. (182636)
Middle Jurassic174.1 - 163.5Australia (Queensland) Dinosauria indet. (60755)
Middle Jurassic174.1 - 163.5China (Xizang) Changdusaurus laminaplacodus (53673)
Bajocian - Callovian170.3 - 163.5China (Sichuan) Stegosauria indet., Huayangosaurus taibaii (24883)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1Morocco (Figuig) Stegosauria indet. (176120)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1Russian Federation (Krasnoyarsk) Stegosauria indet. (61891)
Early/Lower Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Lexovisaurus vetustus (45931) Stegosauria indet. (31054)
Late/Upper Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Omosaurus vetustus (45930) Stegosaurus sp. (45932)

Youngest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state PBDB collection number
Early/Lower Aptian125.45 - 122.46United Kingdom (England) Craterosaurus pottonensis (36581)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5Russian Federation (Kemerovo) Stegosauria indet. (167304)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5Laos (Savannakhet) Stegosauria indet. (130271)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5Mongolia (Dornogov) Wuerhosaurus mongoliensis (32362)
Late/Upper Aptian - Albian122.46 - 100.5China (Xinjiang) Wuerhosaurus homheni (49047 49817)
Albian113.0 - 100.5USA (Utah) Stegosaurus sp. (31193)
Late/Upper Albian - Early/Lower Cenomanian105.3 - 93.5Niger (Agadez) Acanthopholidae indet. (25221)
Late/Upper Cretaceous100.5 - 66.0Kazakhstan (Ongtustik Qazaqstan) Nodosauridae indet. (58750)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0India (Gujarat) Dinosauria indet. (61608)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0India (Tamil Nadu) Stegosauria indet. (53922)