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Ankylosauridae

Reptilia - Ankylosauridae

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1902Palaeoscincus asper Lambe p. 54
1905Palaeoscincus asper Lambe p. 23
1908Ankylosauridae Brown
1909Ankylosauridae Arldt p. 263
1909Ankylosauridae Huene p. 17
1914Ancylosauridae Jaekel p. 197
1915Palaeoscincus asper Hennig p. 14
1915Ankylosauridae Matthew p. 32
1918Ankylosauridae Lambe p. 35
1923Palaeoscincus asper Gilmore p. 48
1928Ankylosauridae Nopcsa p. 73
1930Palaeoscincus asper Russell p. 149
1940Palaeoscincus asper Russell p. 27
1947Ankylosauridae Lapparent p. 18
1952Syrmosauridae Maleev
1953Heishansaurus Bohlin p. 47
1953Heishansaurus pachycephalus Bohlin p. 47
1953Ankylosauridae Maleev p. 109
1953Syrmosauridae Maleev p. 109
1954Syrmosauridae Maleev p. 143
1956Ankylosauridae Maleev p. 53
1956Heishansaurus Romer p. 635
1958Heishanosaurus Huene p. 206
1959Heishansaurus Huene p. 122
1964Syrmosauridae Kuhn p. 39
1964Heishansaurus Kuhn p. 47
1964Heishansaurus pachycephalus Kuhn p. 47
1964Palaeoscincus asper Kuhn p. 49
1964Palaeoscincus asper Russell p. 13
1964Heishansaurus Tatarinov p. 577
1964Syrmosauridae Tatarinov p. 577
1966Heishanosaurus Romer p. 370
1970Ankylosauridae Swinton p. 246
1977Ankylosauridae Rozhdestvensky p. 113
1977Heishansaurus Rozhdestvensky p. 113
1977Heishansaurus pachycephalus Rozhdestvensky p. 113
1978Ankylosauridae Coombs p. 143
1978Heishansaurus Coombs p. 144
1980Ankylosauridae Ostrom p. 23
1983Ankylosauridae Galton p. 4
1984Ankylosauridae Kielan-Jaworowska p. 104
1984Ankylosauridae Norman pp. 159-160 fig. 2
1984Ankylosauridae Russell p. 29
1986Ankylosauridae Bakker p. 461
1986Ankylosauridae Sereno
1987Ankylosauridae Tumanova
1988Ankylosauridae Carroll
1988Heishanosaurus Carroll
1992Heishansaurus Dong p. 166
1993Ankylosauridae Dong p. 259
1995Ankylosauridae Buffetaut
1996Ankylosauridae Carpenter et al. p. 25A
1996Ankylosauridae Coombs, Jr. and Deméré p. 319
1997Heishansaurus pachycephalus Mateer p. 662
1997Ankylosauridae Sereno p. 443
1998Ankylosauridae Barrett et al. p. 382
1998Ankylosauridae Carpenter et al. p. 782
1998Ankylosauridae Sereno p. 61
1999Ankylosauridae Sereno p. 2138 fig. 2
2000Ankylosauridae Ford p. 175
2000Ankylosauridae Tumanova p. 519
2001Ankylosauridae Carpenter p. 457
2001Ankylosauridae Peng et al. p. 35
2001Ankylosauridae Vickaryous et al. p. 1774
2003Ankylosauridae Garcia and Pereda-Suberbiola p. 163
2004Ankylosauridae Vickaryous et al. p. 364
2005Ankylosauridae Ryan and Evans p. 315
2007Ankylosauridae Lü et al. p. 889 fig. 1
2007Ankylosauridae Lü et al. p. 344
2008Ankylosauridae Carpenter et al. p. 1097
2009Ankylosauridae Osi and Makádi p. 239 fig. 10
2009Ankylosauridae Parsons and Parsons p. 736 fig. 18
2014Ankylosauridae Arbour et al.
2014Ankylosauridae Han et al. p. 14 fig. 11
2017Ankylosauridae Arbour and Evans p. 7
2017Ankylosauridae Penkalski and Tumanova
2018Ankylosauridae Zheng et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
RankNameAuthor
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Ornithischia()
Genasauria
Thyreophora()
Ankylosauria()
familyAnkylosauridae
familyAnkylosauridae

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
B. Brown 1908Skull massive, short, and broadly triangular with dermal plates solidly coossified to cartilage bones. Teeth Stegosauroid with ovate-lanceolate flattened crowns and crenulate edges. Vertebre amphiplatyan, solid throughout; neck short, backbone stiff. Body broad, covered with heavy armor plates arranged in rows.
E. A. Maleev 1954 (Syrmosauridae)Large, four-legged dinosaurs with light defensive armor consisting of individual symmetrically distributed scales. The body is very flat and broad as in the Upper Cretaceous Ankylosauria. The teeth are stegosauroid, with a lamellar flat crown having channeled sculpture [=rugose]. Because of the flat body, the head has a distinctive adaptation for elevating, which is expressed as a unique structure of the cervical vertebrae - the articulation surfaces have been twisted so that the rear surface of the vertebra is depressed below the front surface and is almost parallel to it. The dorsal vertebrae are long, with low centra and are slightly flat at the ends. The torso ribs do not attach to the transverse processes of the vertebrae. The pelvis is stegosauroid. The iliac bones are quite wide and thick in the postacetabular region, as in the Ankylosauria. The sacrum consists of three true sacral vertebrae. The front legs are shorter than the hind legs. The digits end with hoof-like formations (the end phalanges). The tail is long (35-40 vertebrae). The rear tail vertebrae (15-20) are rigidly attached to one another, forming a long "club". The overall length of the skeleton and skull is 4-5 meters.
E. A. Maleev 1956Ankylosauridae are large quadruped dinosaurs. The cranium is massive, short, and wide, of triangular shape. The top of the cranium is covered with multiple bony plates and spines. The teeth are of stegosaurid type, with oval-lanceolate crown of striated sculpture. The vertebrae are entire on both sides. The neck is short. The sacrum is long, and encloses from five to nine vertebrae. The body is flattened, broad, covered with heavy bony armor, which consists of united bony plates.
T. A. Tumanova 1987Ankylosaurs with skull greatly expanding in orbital and postorbital regions, width is equal or greater than length (Figs. 2, 3); bones of skull roof covered by many small scutes, which may be posterior to the orbits, change from pyramidal osteoderms into spines; nostrils large and terminal; additional sinuses in nasal cavity present; respiratory tract is flexed; occipital condyle oval, without neck; lateral temporal fenestra and quadrate condyle (except Shamosaurus) closed laterally with osteodermal scutes; scutes also on the the maxilla and expanded from the squamosal into spines; paroccipital processes projects laterally, ends not reaching posterior of skull roof; pterygoid flanges, mandibular branch of pterygoid and ectopterygoid project laterally; teeth are small.
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Entire body: yeso
Adult length: 10 to < 100o
Adult width: 1.0 to < 10o
Adult height: 1.0 to < 10o
Maximum body mass: 10000 kgg
Minimum body mass: 300 kgg
Architecture: compact or denseo
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partso
Grouping: gregariouso
Environment: terrestrialo
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: ground dwellingo
Diet: herbivoreo
Reproduction: oviparouso
Dispersal: direct/internalo
Dispersal 2: mobileo
Created: 2004-12-14 12:50:52
Modified: 2004-12-14 14:50:52
Source: g = genus, o = order
References: Kiessling 2004, Peczkis 1995, Marsh 1875

Age range: base of the Late/Upper Sinemurian to the top of the Lancian or 196.50000 to 66.00000 Ma

Collections (235 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Late/Upper Sinemurian - Early/Lower Pliensbachian196.5 - 183.0Italy (Trentino-Alto Adige) Thyreophora indet. (88592)
Neocomian145.0 - 130.0Mongolia (Govi-Altay) Ankylosauridae indet. (123400)
Early/Lower Cretaceous145.0 - 100.5Mongolia (Ovorkhangai) Ankylosauridae indet. (59359) Syrmosaurus sp. (79703)
Early/Lower Cretaceous145.0 - 100.5Mongolia (Omngov) Ceratopsidae indet. (48928)
Valanginian - Barremian139.8 - 125.0Australia (Queensland) Ankylosauria indet. (60758)
Late/Upper Barremian - Early/Lower Aptian130.0 - 122.46China (Liaoning) Liaoningosaurus paradoxus (55683)
Barremian129.4 - 125.0USA (Utah) Polacanthinae indet. (97953 97956)
Barremian - Aptian129.4 - 113.0China (Gansu) Heishansaurus pachycephalus (50727)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Italy (Apulia) Ankylosauridae indet. (62850)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0China (Liaoning) Chuanqilong chaoyangensis (160135)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5USA (Utah) Cedarpelta bilbeyhallorum (60815)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5China (Liaoning) Ankylosauridae indet. (97423)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5Mongolia (Ovorhangai) Shamosaurus scutatus (77191)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5Mongolia (Dornogov) Ankylosauria indet. (32362)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5USA (Nevada) Ankylosauridae indet. (167383)
Late/Upper Aptian122.46 - 112.03Australia (Victoria) Minmi sp. (188573)
Late/Upper Aptian - Early/Lower Albian122.46 - 109.0USA (Utah) Ankylosauridae indet., Cedarpelta bilbeyhallorum (55334) Cedarpelta bilbeyhallorum (97950)
Albian113.0 - 100.5China (Zhejiang) Jinyunpelta sinensis (180708)
Albian113.0 - 100.5USA (Kansas) Testudines indet. (49038)
Late/Upper Albian105.3 - 99.6Australia (Queensland) Minmi sp. (47057)
Late/Upper Albian - Cenomanian105.3 - 93.9USA (Montana) Ankylosauridae indet. (137590)
Cenomanian - Turonian100.5 - 89.8China (Henan) Zhongyuangosaurus luoyangensis (79687)
Cenomanian - Turonian100.5 - 89.8Mongolia (Dornogov) Ankylosauridae indet. (108342) Talarurus plicatospineus (79702) Tsagantegia longicranialis (55389)
Cenomanian - Turonian100.5 - 89.8Mongolia (Omnogov) Talarurus plicatospineus (51975)
Cenomanian - Turonian100.5 - 89.8China (Liaoning) Crichtonsaurus benxiensis (91201) Crichtonsaurus bohlini (91200)
Cenomanian - Santonian100.5 - 83.6Mongolia (Omnogov) Zaraapelta nomadis (130804)
Cenomanian - Santonian100.5 - 83.6Mongolia (Dornogov) Ankylosauridae indet. (130794) Tsagantegia sp. (127664)
Cenomanian - Campanian100.5 - 72.1China (Shanxi) Ankylosauridae indet. (45408)
Late/Upper Cretaceous100.5 - 66.0China (Ningxia) Pinacosaurus ninghsiensis (62323)
Late/Upper Cretaceous100.5 - 66.0Mongolia (Omnogov) Ankylosauridae indet. (100269)
Late/Upper Cretaceous100.5 - 66.0China (Shanxi) Shanxia tianzhenensis (51907)
Late/Upper Cretaceous100.5 - 66.0China (Henan) Ankylosauridae indet. (84996)
Early/Lower Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Uzbekistan (Navoi) Shamosaurinae indet. (58208)
Early/Lower Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan) Ankylosauria indet. (64689)
Middle Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Canada (Alberta) Ankylosauridae indet. (156160)
Turonian93.9 - 89.8Uzbekistan (Navoi) Ankylosauridae indet. (58603)
Turonian93.9 - 89.8China (Nei Mongol) Gobisaurus domoculus (66924)
Early/Lower Turonian93.5 - 89.3Uzbekistan Ankylosauridae indet. (58596)
Early/Lower Turonian93.5 - 89.3Uzbekistan (Navoi) Ankylosauridae indet. (58597)
Middle Turonian - Late/Upper Turonian93.5 - 89.3Uzbekistan (Navoi) Ankylosauridae indet. (58598 58606 58611) Ankylosauridae indet., Ankylosaurinae indet. (58165) Ankylosaurinae indet. (58167 58174)
Late/Upper Turonian - Coniacian93.5 - 86.3Uzbekistan (Navoi) Ankylosauridae indet. (58614)
Late/Upper Turonian - Santonian93.5 - 83.6Kazakhstan (Qaraghandy) Ankylosauridae indet. (58616)
Coniacian - Santonian89.8 - 83.6Uzbekistan (Navoi) Ankylosauridae indet. (58699 58700)
Senonian89.3 - 66.0Kazakhstan (Qostanay) Ankylosauridae indet. (59382)
Santonian86.3 - 83.6Uzbekistan (Navoi) Ankylosauridae indet. (58615)
Santonian - Early/Lower Campanian86.3 - 70.6Kazakhstan (Qyzylorda) Ankylosauridae indet. (59701)
Santonian - Early/Lower Campanian86.3 - 70.6Kazakhstan (Qaraghandy) Stegosauria indet. (58756)
Early/Lower Santonian85.8 - 83.5Tajikistan Ankylosauridae indet. (58491 58701)
Late/Upper Santonian - Early/Lower Campanian85.8 - 70.6USA (New Mexico) Ankylosauridae indet. (51982)
Late/Upper Santonian - Early/Lower Campanian85.8 - 70.6USA (Montana) Ankylosauridae indet. (142497)
Late/Upper Santonian - Late/Upper Campanian85.8 - 70.6Mongolia (Omnogov) Pinacosaurus grangeri (167657)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Mongolia (Ömnögovi Aimag) Ankylosauria indet. (130798)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Mongolia (Omnogov) Ankylosauridae indet. (13776 37022 100277 108340 181420 181421) Ankylosauridae indet., Pinacosaurus sp. (127678) Pinacosaurus grangeri (45329 65334) Saichania chulsanensis (11582)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1China (Shandong) Pinacosaurus grangeri (35966)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Mexico (Coahuila) Ankylosauridae indet. (68039)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Uzbekistan (Navoi) Ankylosauridae indet. (58710)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Canada (Alberta) Ankylosauridae indet. (45819 45821 45894) Euoplocephalus sp. (52476) Stegosauria indet. (144551)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Mongolia (Omnogov (=Southern Gobi)) Ankylosauridae indet. (137600)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Mongolia (Omnogov Aimak) Ankylosauridae indet. (37184)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Mongolia (Dornogov) Ankylosauridae indet. (108345) Pinacosaurus grangeri (65338)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1China (Nei Mongol) Pinacosaurus mephistocephalus (37807)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1USA (Montana) Ankylosauridae indet. (22652 53048 59373) Ankylosauridae indet., Euoplocephalus sp. (22694) Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus (45681) Euoplocephalus sp. (62541 196407)
Campanian - Early/Lower Maastrichtian83.6 - 66.0Canada (Alberta) Anodontosaurus lambei (155222)
Campanian - Maastrichtian83.6 - 66.0China (Xinjiang) Euoplocephalus sp. (159589)
Campanian - Maastrichtian83.6 - 66.0Mongolia (Omnogov) Ankylosauridae indet. (38698 38700 180299) Dyoplosaurus sp. (38699) Tarchia gigantea (37006)
Early/Lower Campanian83.5 - 70.6Canada (Alberta) Ankylosauridae indet. (181024)
Early/Lower Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Utah) Ankylosauridae indet. (14430 61844)
Judithian83.5 - 70.6USA (Texas) Ankylosauria indet. (14489)
Judithian83.5 - 70.6USA (Wyoming) Ankylosauridae indet. (14458)
Judithian83.5 - 70.6Canada (Alberta) Ankylosauridae indet. (14451)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Montana) Nodosauridae indet. (22692) Oohkotokia horneri (138980) Zuul crurivastator (190394)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Canada (Alberta) Ankylosauria indet. (45733 58957 59023 59037 59220) Ankylosauridae indet. (22657 22696 34309 36264 45671 45674 45892 45897 45898 46954 51863 55317 58759 76030 89604 89605 155220 155258 163048 175824) Anodontosaurus lambei (135807 155221) Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus (46332) Euoplocephalus sp. (35379 45683 48618 61625 61627 155267 196405) Euoplocephalus tutus (59004) Scelidosaurus sp. (155228)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Utah) Akainacephalus johnsoni (196592)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (New Mexico) Ahshislepelta minor (156486) Ankylosauridae indet. (36269 62535 154419) Nodocephalosaurus kirtlandensis (54104 76107 76761 76762 76763 194876) Ziapelta sanjuanensis (169229)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Mongolia (Omnogov) Ankylosauridae indet., Pinacosaurus grangeri (55256) Pinacosaurus grangeri (46152) Pinacosaurus sp. (37013 37016 59372) Syrmosaurus viminocaudus (53229)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6France (Bouches-du-Rhône) Ankylosauridae indet. (59269)
Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Montana) Ankylosauridae indet. (14482)
Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6Mongolia (Omngov) Pinacosaurus sp. (100261)
Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6Canada (Alberta) Ankylosauridae indet. (45561 45564 45565 45670) Euoplocephalus sp. (196406) Euoplocephalus tutus (196419 196420)
Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6Mongolia (Omnogov) Ankylosauridae indet. (28243)
Middle Campanian - Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Canada (Alberta) Ankylosauridae indet. (155263 155264 155265 167986) Euoplocephalus sp. (155027) Palaeoscincus asper (52477) Scolosaurus cutleri (59015) Stegosauria indet. (155266)
Middle Campanian - Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Montana) Ankylosauridae indet. (14490) Ankylosauridae indet., Euoplocephalus sp. (14437) Euoplocephalus sp. (14470 14492)
Middle Campanian - Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Canada (Saskatchewan) Ankylosauridae indet. (14494)
Late/Upper Campanian - Early/Lower Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0Spain (Valencia) Ankylosauridae indet. (53918)
Late/Upper Campanian - Early/Lower Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0Mongolia (Omnogov) Ankylosauridae indet. (59087 100266 100268 100273 100275 127670) Dyoplosaurus giganteus (53227)
Late/Upper Campanian - Early/Lower Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0Canada (Alberta) Ankylosauria indet. (155224 155225 155227) Anodontosaurus lambei (155226)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (Montana) Ankylosauridae indet. (85498 85499) Ankylosaurus magniventris (11931 45879) Euoplocephalus sp. (61631)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Mongolia (Omnogov) Ankylosauria indet. (55258) Dyoplosaurus giganteus (179625)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Canada (Alberta) Ankylosauridae indet. (45678) Ankylosaurus sp. (45877)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (New Mexico) Ankylosauridae indet. (171027)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0France (Languedoc-Roussillon) Ankylosauridae indet. (138411)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (Wyoming) Dynamosaurus imperiosus (45878)
Early/Lower Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Canada (Alberta) Ankylosauria indet. (11899) Ankylosauridae indet. (55363 135739) Ankylosaurus magniventris, Euoplocephalus sp. (45876) Ankylosaurus sp. (51966) Anodontosaurus lambei (94370 144561) Euoplocephalus sp. (61628 64630 155223)
Lancian70.6 - 66.0USA (Wyoming) Ankylosaurus magniventris (14514) Ankylosaurus sp. (14541 14544 75289 75430 75435)
Lancian70.6 - 66.0USA (Montana) Ankylosauridae indet. (14616) Ankylosaurus magniventris (14534)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (New Mexico) Pachycephalosauridae indet. (47008)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (Wyoming) Ankylosaurus magniventris (14585)