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Merycoidodon (Otarohyus) bullatus

Mammalia - Ungulata - Merycoidodontidae

Oreodon bullatus was named by Leidy (1869). Its type specimen is ANSP 10681, a partial skull, and it is a 3D body fossil.

It was recombined as Eporeodon bullatus by Marsh (1875), Thorpe (1921), Sinclair (1924), Thorpe (1924), Thorpe (1937) and Scott (1940); it was synonymized subjectively with Eucrotaphus jacksoni by Cope (1884) and Lander (1998); it was recombined as Otionohyus (Otarohyus) bullatus by Schultz and Falkenbach (1968); it was recombined as Merycoidodon (Otarohyus) bullatus by Stevens and Stevens (1996); it was recombined as Merycoidodon bullatus by Hay (1902), Ostrander (1985) and Stevens and Stevens (2007).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1869Oreodon bullatus Leidy
1873Oreodon bullatus Leidy p. 212
1875Eporeodon bullatus Marsh p. 250
1884Eporeodon socialis Marsh
1902Eucrotaphus helenae Douglass p. 265
1902Merycoidodon bullatus Hay p. 665
1902Eporeodon socialis Hay p. 667
1907Eucrotaphus dickinsonensis Douglass p. 99
1921Eporeodon bullatus Thorpe p. 104
1924Eporeodon bullatus Sinclair
1924Eporeodon bullatus Thorpe
1924Eporeodon dickinsonensis Thorpe
1924Eporeodon helenae Thorpe
1937Eporeodon bullatus Thorpe p. 65 figs. Figs. 7, 28-30
1937Eporeodon dickinsonensis Thorpe p. 68 figs. Figs. 4, 34; PL IV, figs. 1-3
1937Eporeodon helenae Thorpe p. 69 figs. PI. IV, figs. 4-8
1937Eporeodon socialis Thorpe p. 86 figs. Figs. 46-64, 186} PI. XLII; PI. L, figs. 1-2
1940Eporeodon bullatus Scott p. 678
1940Eporeodon socialis Scott p. 683
1940Eporeodon helenae Scott p. 685
1954Subdesmatochoerus socialis Schultz and Falkenbach p. 221 figs. 18 - 21
1968Merycoidodon (Anomerycoidodon) dani Schultz and Falkenbach p. 75 figs. 4-6, 20-23, 51
1968Merycoidodon (Blickohyus) galushai Schultz and Falkenbach p. 80 figs. 4-6, 52
1968Paramerycoidodon (Barbourochoerus) bacai Schultz and Falkenbach p. 91 figs. 7-9, 52
1968Otionohyus (Otarohyus) bullatus Schultz and Falkenbach p. 118 figs. 11-13, 19-23, 52
1968Otionohyus (Otarohyus) hybridus helenae Schultz and Falkenbach p. 131
1968Genetochoerus (Osbornohyus) norbeckensis Schultz and Falkenbach p. 143 figs. 14-16, 21-23, 52
1968Genetochoerus (Osbornohyus) geygani Schultz and Falkenbach p. 149 figs. 14-16, 19-23
1968Genetochoerus (Osbornohyus) dickinsonensis Schultz and Falkenbach p. 154 figs. Figures 14-16, 19, 20, 22, 52
1985Merycoidodon bullatus Ostrander
1996Merycoidodon (Otarohyus) bullatus Stevens and Stevens p. 523 figs. Figures 2C, 3C; Tables 1-7; Appendix B
1998Eucrotaphus galushai Lander
2007Merycoidodon bullatus Stevens and Stevens p. 160

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
orderUngulata(Linnaeus 1766)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1954 (Subdesmatochoerus socialis)SKULL: Slightly larger than in holotype of S socialis dakotensis and average examples of Prodesmatochoerus meekae, smaller than in holotype of S. montanus and examples of S. shannonensis; exocc1pital with elongated vacuities smaller than in S. montanus and S. shannonensis; orbit smaller than. in S. shannonensis · paroccipital process wide at base, adhering' to the bulla; bulla well inflated, pit for hyoid attachment more prominent than in S. shannonensis (paroccipital process placed posterior to bulla, differing from S. montanus in which it is more laterally placed).
MANDIBLE: Postsymphysis below anterior portion of P 8 ; ramus of less depth than in the holotype of S. montanus; infenor border of ramus with gradual downward curve; ascending ramus moderately high.
DENTITION: Series slightly larger than in examples of P. meekae; approximately equal to those of S. shannonensis.
LIMBS:More robust and longer than examples of P. meekae.
M. S. Stevens and J. B. Stevens 1996The cranial characterization of the species is the same as for the genus-subgenus. Auditory bullae vary from slightly inflated with a moderate hyoidal groove to well inflated with a shallow groove. The Subnasal L. averages 46.5% of the Nasal L. (7 specimens; Appendix B), pl_P4;p1-M 3 averages 49.4% (Table 3), APM3/TM3 ratio averages 1.00 (Table5),APM3/Ht.M3ratioaverages 1.67(Table4), and TM3/Ht. M3 averages 1.66 (Table 6). Merycoi- dodon bullatus differs from Merycoidodon (Merycoido- don) culbertsoni by variously inflated auditory bullae and slightly but significantly broader P.O.C. and higher crowned M3, otherwise similar . Merycoidodon bullatus differs from M. (Otarohyus) major by significantly (except Nasal L.) smaller size, larger and deeper preorbital fossae, less expanded frontals, and smaller auditory bullae with deeper hyoidal grooves.
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: terrestrialo
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: ground dwellingf
Diet: herbivoref
Created: 2005-08-31 14:37:21
Modified: 2005-08-31 16:37:21
Source: f = family, o = order, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Nowak 1999, Lander 1998, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range: base of the Orellan to the top of the Arikareean or 33.90000 to 20.43000 Ma

Collections (31 total)

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Orellan33.9 - 33.3USA (North Dakota) Otionohyus bullatus (17101 17129)
Orellan33.9 - 33.3USA (South Dakota) Eporeodon bullatus (17061 17133 17296) Genetochoerus geygani (17188) Merycoidodon bullatus (17115) Oreodon bullatus (17295) Otionohyus bullatus (17066 17079 17093 17146 17151 17163 17169 17179 17184 17192) Otionohyus wardi (17171)
Orellan33.9 - 33.3USA (Nebraska) Merycoidodon dani (17245) Paramerycoidodon bacai (17258 17288)
Whitneyan33.3 - 30.8USA (Nebraska) Otionohyus cedrensis (17433)
Whitneyan33.3 - 30.8USA (South Dakota) Genetochoerus geygani (17352) Merycoidodon bullatus (17336 17337 17338) Merycoidodon galushai (17315 17347) Otionohyus cedrensis (17363)
Arikareean30.8 - 20.43USA (Oregon) Eporeodon bullatus (93078)