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Rheidae (rhea)

Reptilia - Rheiformes - Rheidae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1849Rheidae Bonaparte
1891Rheidae Moreno and Mercerat p. 69
1914Rheidae Rovereto p. 160
1933Rheidae Lambrecht p. 110
1988Rheidae Carroll
2007Rheidae Livezey and Zusi p. 89
2009Rheidae Mayr p. 32
2014Rheidae del Hoyo et al.
2017Rheidae Clements et al.
2017Rheidae Noriega et al. p. 4
2023Rheidae Tambussi et al. p. 264

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1874
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
subclassSarcopterygii()
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
subclassAmphibiosauriaKuhn 1967
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
RankNameAuthor
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Theropoda()
Neotheropoda
AverostraPaul 2002
Tetanurae
Coelurosauria()
Maniraptora
Paraves
classAves
subclassNeornithesGadow 1893
superorderPalaeognathaePycraft 1900
orderRheiformes
familyRheidaeBonaparte 1849
familyRheidaeBonaparte 1849

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Fm. Rheidae Bonaparte 1849 [rhea]
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G. †Diogenornis Alvarenga 1983
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Diogenornis fragilis Alvarenga 1983
G. †Heterorhea Rovereto 1914
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Heterorhea dabbenei Rovereto 1914
G. †Hinasuri Tambussi 1995
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Hinasuri nehuensis Tambussi 1995
G. †Opisthodactylus Ameghino 1891
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Opisthodactylus horacioperezi Agnolin and Chafrat 2015
Opisthodactylus kirchneri Noriega et al. 2017
Opisthodactylus patagonicus Ameghino 1891
G. †Protorhea Moreno and Mercerat 1891
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Protorhea azarae Moreno and Mercerat 1891
G. Rhea Brisson 1760
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Rhea americana Linnaeus 1758 [greater rhea]
Rhea fossilis Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Rhea nana Lydekker 1894
Rhea pampeana Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Rhea pennata d'Orbigny 1834 [lesser rhea]
Rhea subpampeana Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Rhea tarapacensis Chubb 1913 [Puna rhea]
Invalid names: Pterocnemia Gray 1870 [synonym]
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Entire body: yeso
Adult length: 10 to < 100o
Adult width: 1.0 to < 10o
Adult height: 1.0 to < 10o
Architecture: compact or denseo
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partso
Grouping: solitaryo
Environment: terrestrialo
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: ground dwellingo
Diet: carnivoresubo
Reproduction: oviparouso
Dispersal: direct/internalo
Dispersal 2: mobileo
Created: 2009-01-03 20:39:15
Modified: 2009-01-03 22:39:15
Source: subo = suborder, o = order
References: Benton 1983, Marsh 1875

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Early/Lower Eocene to the top of the Holocene or 55.80000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 48.6 Ma

Collections (30 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Early/Lower Eocene55.8 - 48.6Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) Diogenornis fragilis (38793)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333Argentina (Buenos Aires) Rhea subpampeana (88835)
Neogene23.03 - 2.58Argentina Rhea fossilis (88837)
Colhuehuapian21.0 - 17.5Argentina (Mendoza) Pterocnemia mesopotamica (189522)
Colhuehuapian21.0 - 17.5Argentina (Río Negro) Opisthodactylus horacioperezi (89093)
Santacrucian17.5 - 16.3Argentina (Santa Cruz) Opisthodactylus patagonicus (27313 176563 176625 210153 210787)
Huayquerian8.0 - 5.0Argentina (La Pampa) Pterocnemia sp. (87198)
Huayquerian8.0 - 5.0Argentina (Entre Rios) Pterocnemia sp. (140471) Rheidae indet. (55600)
Messinian - Zanclean7.246 - 3.6Argentina (La Rioja) Opisthodactylus kirchneri (152263)
Montehermosan5.0 - 3.8Argentina (Buenos Aires) Heterorhea dabbenei, Hinasuri nehuensis (198863) Protorhea azarae (13503)
Montehermosan - Chapadmalalan5.0 - 3.0Argentina (Catamarca) Opisthodactylus kirchneri (157795)
Lujanian0.781 - 0.012Argentina (Buenos Aires) Rheidae indet. (63337)
Middle Pleistocene0.774 - 0.129Argentina (Buenos Aires) Rhea sp. (63335)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Argentina (Chubut) Rhea sp. (71338)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Brazil (Piauí) Rhea sp. (211632)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Argentina (Buenos Aires) Rhea americana (73845) Rhea pampeana (88836)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Argentina (Cordoba) Rheidae indet. (191130)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Bolivia (Chuquisaca) Rhea americana (70705)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Argentina (Santiago del Estero) Rhea americana (187627)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Argentina (Buenos Aires) Rhea americana (63342) Rhea sp. (63338)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Argentina Rheidae indet. (93267)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Argentina (Santa Cruz) Rhea americana, Pterocnemia pennata (73843)