Basic info Taxonomic history Classification Included Taxa
Morphology Ecology and taphonomy External Literature Search Age range and collections

Falconidae

Reptilia - Falconidae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1824Falconidae Vigors
1891Falconidae Moreno and Mercerat p. 66
1892Falconidae De Vis p. 454
1902Falconidae Hay p. 535
1930Falconidae Hay p. 320
1933Falconidae Lambrecht p. 420
1940Falconidae Wetmore p. 40
1956Falconidae Wetmore p. 48
1982Falconidae Howard p. 10
1988Falconidae Carroll
1992Falconidae Baird p. 24
1992Falconidae Guthrie p. 322
1992Falconidae Parmalee p. 311
2007Falconidae Livezey and Zusi p. 93
2014Falconidae del Hoyo et al.
2017Falconidae Clements et al.
2020Falconidae Worthy and Nguyen p. 96
2023Falconidae Tambussi et al. p. 280

Is something missing? Join the Paleobiology Database and enter the data

RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1874
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
subclassSarcopterygii()
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
subclassAmphibiosauriaKuhn 1967
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
RankNameAuthor
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Theropoda()
Neotheropoda
AverostraPaul 2002
Tetanurae
Coelurosauria()
Maniraptora
Paraves
classAves
Falconiformes(Sharpe 1874)
familyFalconidaeVigors 1824
familyFalconidaeVigors 1824

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Fm. Falconidae Vigors 1824
show all | hide all
G. †Asthenopterus Ameghino 1891
+
Asthenopterus minutus Moreno and Mercerat 1891
G. †Asturaetus De Vis 1905
+
Asturaetus furcillatus De Vis 1905
G. †Badiostes
+
Badiostes patagonicus Ameghino 1894
G. †Badrostes
G. Baza De Vis 1905
G. Caracara Merrem 1826 [caracara]
+
Caracara cheriway Jacquin 1784 [crested caracara]
+
Invalid names: Caracara prelutosa Howard 1938 [synonym]
Caracara creightoni Brodkorb 1959 [Creighton's caracara]
Caracara plancus Miller 1777 [southern caracara]
Invalid names: Polyborus Vieillot 1816 [replaced]
G. †Falconidarum Regalia 1902
Subfm. Falconinae Vigors 1824
+
G. Falco Linnaeus 1758 [falcon]
+
Subg. †Falco (Cerchneis) Boie 1826
Subg. Falco (Hierofalco) Cuvier 1817
+
Subg. Falco (Rhynchodon) Nitzsch 1829
Falco alopex Heuglin 1861 [Fox kestrel]
Falco altaicus Menzbier 1891 [Altai falcon]
Falco amurensis Radde 1863 [Amur falcon]
Falco ardosiaceus Vieillot 1823 [Grey kestrel]
Falco bakalovi Boev 1999
Falco berigora Vigors and Horsfield 1827 [Brown falcon]
Falco biarmicus Temminck 1825 [Lanner falcon]
Falco cenchroides Vigors and Horsfield 1827 [Australian kestrel]
Falco cherrug Gray 1834 [Saker falcon]
Falco columbarius Linnaeus 1758 [merlin]
Falco concolor Temminck 1825 [Sooty falcon]
Falco cuvierii Smith 1830 [African hobby]
Falco deiroleucus Temminck 1825 [Orange-breasted falcon]
Falco duboisi Cowles 1994 [Réunion kestrel]
Falco eleonorae Gené 1839 [Eleonora's falcon]
Falco falconellus Shufeldt 1915
Falco fasciinucha Reichenow and Neumann 1895 [Taita falcon]
Falco femoralis Temminck 1822 [Aplomado falcon]
Falco hypoleucos Gould 1841 [Grey falcon]
Falco jugger Gray 1834 [Laggar falcon]
Falco longipennis Swainson 1837 [Australian hobby]
Falco medius Umans'ka 1981
Falco melanaetus Linnaeus 1758
Falco mexicanus Schlegel 1850 [Prairie falcon]
Falco naumanni Fleischer 1818 [Lesser kestrel]
Falco newtoni Gurney 1863 [Madagascar kestrel]
Falco novaeseelandiae Gmelin 1788 [New Zealand falcon]
Falco oregonus Howard 1946
Falco peregrinus Tunstall 1771 [Peregrine falcon]
Falco punctatus Temminck 1821 [Mauritius kestrel]
Falco readi Brodkorb 1959
Falco rufigularis Daudin 1800 [Bat falcon]
Falco rupicoloides Smith 1829 [Greater kestrel]
Falco rusticolus Linnaeus 1758 [gyrfalcon]
Falco severus Horsfield 1821 [Oriental hobby]
Falco sparverius Linnaeus 1758 [American kestrel]
Falco subbuteo Linnaeus 1758 [Eurasian hobby]
Falco subniger Gray 1843 [Black falcon]
Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus 1758 [Common kestrel]
Falco vespertinus Linnaeus 1766 [Red-footed falcon]
Invalid names: Tinnunculus Vieillot 1807 [synonym]
G. †Pediohierax Becker 1987
+
Pediohierax ramenta Wetmore 1936
G. Spiziapteryx Kaup 1852 [spot-winged falconet]
Invalid names: Falconini del Hoyo et al. 2014 [empty], Polyborini del Hoyo et al. 2014 [empty]
G. †Foetopterus Moreno and Mercerat 1891
+
Foetopterus ambiguus Moreno and Mercerat 1891
G. Herpetotheres Vieillot 1817 [laughing falcon]
+
Herpetotheres cachinnans Linnaeus 1758 [Laughing falcon]
G. †Lagopterus Moreno and Mercerat 1891
G. Micrastur Gray 1841 [forest falcon]
+
Micrastur ruficollis Vieillot 1817 [Barred forest-falcon]
Micrastur semitorquatus Vieillot 1817 [Collared forest-falcon]
G. Milvago Spix 1824 [caracara]
+
Milvago brodkorbi Campbell 1979 [caracara]
Milvago chimachima Viellot 1816 [yellow-headed caracara]
+
Invalid names: Milvago readei Brodkorb 1959 [synonym]
G. Phalcoboenus d'Orbigny 1834
+
Phalcoboenus australis Gmelin 1788 [striated caracara]
Phalcoboenus chimango Vieillot 1816 [Chimango caracara]
Phalcoboenus napieri Adams and Woods 2016
G. †Taphetus De Vis 1891
+
Taphaetus brachialis De Vis 1890
G. †Thegornis
+
Thegornis debilis Ameghino 1894
Thegornis musculosus Ameghino 1894
Invalid names: Caracarinae [empty], Herpetotherinae del Hoyo et al. 2014 [empty], Polyborinae Lafresnaye 1839 [empty]
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Entire body: yeso
Adult length: 10 to < 100o
Adult width: 1.0 to < 10o
Adult height: 1.0 to < 10o
Architecture: compact or denseo
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partso
Grouping: solitaryo
Environment: terrestrialf
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: volantf
Diet: carnivoref
Reproduction: oviparouso
Dispersal: direct/internalo
Dispersal 2: mobileo
Created: 2009-01-03 16:32:37
Modified: 2009-01-03 18:32:37
Source: f = family, o = order
References: Marsh 1875, Naka 2004

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Bridgerian to the top of the Holocene or 50.30000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 46.2 Ma

Collections (151 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Bridgerian50.3 - 46.2USA (Wyoming) Falco falconella (16210)
Colhuehuapian21.0 - 17.5Argentina (Neuquén) Falconidae indet. (89030)
Hemingfordian20.43 - 15.97USA (Nebraska) Pediohierax ramenta (18001)
Santacrucian17.5 - 16.3Argentina (Santa Cruz) Badiostes patagonicus (176565) Thegornis debilis (142533) Thegornis musculosus (176566 176603)
Early/Lower Barstovian16.3 - 12.5USA (Nebraska) Pediohierax ramenta (17880 17905 17976)
Tortonian11.62 - 7.246USA (California) Falconidae indet. (50069)
Late/Upper Miocene11.608 - 5.333Ukraine Falco medius (39816)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Idaho) Falco sp. (19085)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (California) Falco sp. (57909)
Messinian7.246 - 5.333Argentina (La Pampa) Milvago sp. (141939)
Pliocene - Pleistocene5.333 - 0.0117Italy (Tuscany) Falconidae indet. (49240)
Montehermosan5.0 - 3.8Argentina (Buenos Aires) Foetopterus ambiguus (13503)
Late/Upper Pliocene3.6 - 2.588Chile Milvago sp. (100174)
Villanyian3.2 - 2.588Hungary (Barany) Falco sp. (35368)
Gelasian2.588 - 1.806USA (Florida) Falco sparverius, Falco columbarius (20384)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Spain (Mallorca) Falco sp. (214536)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Hungary (Barany) Falco tinnunculus, Falco vespertinus (35457)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Greece (Chalkidiki) Falco tinnunculus (183123)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117United Kingdom Falco peregrinus (124960)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117USA (California) Falco sparverius (176098)
Calabrian1.8 - 0.774Spain (Castilla-Leon) Falco naumanni (34870)
Calabrian1.8 - 0.774Italy Falco peregrinus (197789) Falco peregrinus, Falco subbuteo (197790)
Calabrian1.8 - 0.774Spain (Palencia) Falco sp. (221570) Falco tinnunculus (205228) Falco tinnunculus, Falco rusticolus (213667)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Colorado) Falco sp., Falco sparverius (152653)
Lujanian0.781 - 0.012Argentina (Buenos Aires) Caracara sp. (202096) Lagopterus minutus (71303)
Middle Pleistocene0.774 - 0.129USA (California) Falco sparverius (20639)
Middle Pleistocene0.774 - 0.129Hungary Falco tinnunculus (35045)
Middle Pleistocene0.774 - 0.129Italy (Siracusa) Falco tinnunculus, Falco columbarius, Falco subbuteo, Falco eleonorae (175900)
Middle Pleistocene - Late/Upper Pleistocene0.774 - 0.0117Monaco Falco peregrinus, Falco tinnunculus (191730)
Rancholabrean0.3 - 0.012Mexico (Sonora) Caracara cheriway (20495)
Rancholabrean0.3 - 0.012USA (Florida) Falco sparverius (20398) Falco sparverius, Falco peregrinus, Caracara prelutosa (20491)
Rancholabrean - Holocene0.3 - 0.0USA (California) Falco sparverius, Polyborus plancus (84904)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Jordan Falco sp. (197945)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117United Kingdom (Wales) Falco subbuteo (124954)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Chile (O'Higgins) Milvago chimango (71280)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Spain Falco sp., Falco tinnunculus, Falco naumanni, Falco vespertinus, Falco subbuteo (197938)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117USA (New Mexico) Falco sparverius, Falco mexicanus (93281) Falco sparverius, Falco mexicanus, Caracara prelutosa, Falco swarthi (71670)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (high glacial)0.129 - 0.0117Venezuela (Zulia) Falco sparverius, Falco peregrinus, Caracara cheriway (63515)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Mexico (Mexico) Caracara prelutosa (192627)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117USA (California) Falco peregrinus, Polyborus plancus (176102) Falco sp., Falco sparverius, Falco mexicanus, Falco peregrinus, Polyborus prelutosus, Falco columbarius (190077) Falco sp., Polyborus sp., Falco sparverius, Falco mexicanus, Falco peregrinus, Falco columbarius, Falco swarthi (44954) Falco sparverius (74235 123918 215552) Falco sparverius, Polyborus plancus (125236) Falco sparverius, Polyborus prelutosus (218989) Polyborus cheriway (79630) Polyborus plancus (120827 125234 125237)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117France (Corse) Falco tinnunculus (215363)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117United Kingdom Falco columbarius (124956) Falco tinnunculus (93837)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (high glacial)0.129 - 0.0117USA (New Mexico) Falco peregrinus (76059) Falco sparverius (76060)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Australia (South Australia) Asturaetus furcillatus (176412) Falco berigora (136157 181314)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (late glacial)0.129 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Falco sparverius, Milvago readei, Falco peregrinus, Polyborus plancus, Falco columbarius (154722)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Romania Falco tinnunculus (197946) Falco vespertinus (197948)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117USA (Georgia) Falco sparverius (84190)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117USA (Virginia) Falco sparverius (103991)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117USA (Oregon) Falco oregonus (93251)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Italy Falco columbarius, Falco cherrug (194932) Falco sp. (197773 197787) Falco sp. 1, Falco sp., Falco tinnunculus, Falco vespertinus (197769)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Greece (Peloponnesus) Falco vespertinus (184245)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.129 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Falco sparverius, Falco peregrinus, Polyborus prelutosus (20595) Falco sparverius, Falco readi, Falco peregrinus (20573)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Azerbaijan Falco peregrinus, Falco tinnunculus (193356)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.129 - 0.0117USA (Alabama) Falco sparverius (84181)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Falco sparverius (20638) Polyborus cheriway (74292)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Peru Falco sp., Falco sparverius, Milvago brodkorbi, Falco peregrinus, Polyborus plancus, Falco femoralis (71346)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Portugal Falco tinnunculus (197768)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Bahamas (Great Abaco Island) Falco sparverius (144663)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117USA (Wyoming) Falco sparverius, Falco mexicanus, Polyborus plancus, Falco columbarius, Falco rusticolus (93277)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (glacial)0.129 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Polyborus cheriway (154771)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (late glacial)0.129 - 0.0117USA (Tennessee) Falco sparverius (82890)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Russian Federation Falco altaicus (194807) Falco sp. (194811)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (glacial)0.129 - 0.0117USA (California) Falco sparverius, Falco peregrinus (155393)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117New Zealand (South Island) Falco novaeseelandiae (87814)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117East Timor Falco sp. (204407)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.129 - 0.0117USA (Idaho) Falco peregrinus (20569)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Ecuador Milvago sp., Falco peregrinus, Polyborus plancus, Falco femoralis (152599)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117Greece (Crete) Falco eleonorae (192957) Falco peregrinus, Falco tinnunculus, Falco eleonorae (192949) Falco peregrinus, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Falco eleonorae (92902) Falco tinnunculus (192948 192954 192965) Falco tinnunculus, Falco eleonorae (192955 192959) Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Falco eleonorae (192951)
Late/Upper Pleistocene - Holocene0.129 - 0.0Bahamas (New Providence Island) Falco sparverius, Caracara creightoni (194588) Falco sparverius, Polyborus creightoni (144649)
Late/Upper Pleistocene - Holocene0.129 - 0.0Romania Falco sp. (197949)
Late/Upper Pleistocene - Holocene0.129 - 0.0USA (Utah) Falco sp., Falco mexicanus, Polyborus plancus (93326)
Late/Upper Pleistocene - Holocene0.129 - 0.0Russian Federation Falco columbarius, Falco subbuteo (194812)
Late/Upper Pleistocene - Holocene0.129 - 0.0Cayman Islands Falco columbarius (209852)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Cayman Islands (Grand Cayman) Polyborus creightoni (186637)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0USA (Ohio) Falco peregrinus (195062)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Venezuela Polyborus plancus (197932 197934)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0New Caledonia Falco peregrinus (13221)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Madagascar (Toliara) Falco newtoni (92733)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Spain Falco sp., Falco tinnunculus (194379)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Bahamas (Great Abaco Island) Caracara creightoni (144662)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Australia (Victoria) Falco cenchroides (138410)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Reunion Falco duboisi (193992 193993 193994)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0USA (Alaska) Falco sp. (220460)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0New Zealand Falco novaeseelandiae (100554 194619 198088)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0USA (California) Falco columbarius (194912) Falco mexicanus, Falco peregrinus (194914) Falco peregrinus (194905) Falco peregrinus, Falco columbarius (194926) Falco sp. (194906 194908 194909) Falco sp., Falco peregrinus (194927) Falco sparverius (194913)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Canada (Nunavut) Falco rusticolus (229484)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Mexico (Chiapas) Polyborus plancus (195047)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Madagascar Falco newtoni (195020)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Australia (South Australia) Falco cenchroides (194979)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Peru Falco sparverius (71328)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0France (Corse) Falco peregrinus, Falco vespertinus, Falco subbuteo (215376)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Falco femoralis, Phalcoboenus australis, Phalcoboenus napieri (194620)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0New Zealand (South Island) Falco novaeseelandiae (215392 215418)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Bolivia (Chuquisaca) Falconidae indet. (70705)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Mauritius Falco punctatus (194166)