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Gruiformes

Reptilia - Theropoda

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1854Gruiformes Bonaparte
1890Gruiformes Zittel p. 846
1898Gruiformes Gadow p. 34
1911Gruiformes Jaekel p. 175
1930Gruiformes Hay p. 330
1940Gruiformes Wetmore p. 48
1960Gruiformes Wetmore p. 26
1988Gruiformes Carroll
1992Gruiformes Parmalee p. 313
2000Gruiformes Kurochkin p. 551
2005Gruiformes Mayr p. 318
2007Gruiformes Livezey and Zusi p. 91
2011Gruiformes Mourer-Chauvire et al. p. 817
2014Gruiformes del Hoyo et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1874
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
subclassSarcopterygii()
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
subclassAmphibiosauriaKuhn 1967
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
RankNameAuthor
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
orderTheropoda
Neotheropoda
AverostraPaul 2002
Tetanurae
Coelurosauria()
Maniraptora
Paraves
classAves
subclassNeornithesGadow 1893
Neognathae(Pycraft 1900)
NeoavesSibley et al. 1988
Terrestrornithes
Telmatorae
superorderCharadriimorphaeHuxley 1867
orderGruiformesBonaparte 1854
orderGruiformesBonaparte 1854

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Or. Gruiformes Bonaparte 1854
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G. †Anisolornis Ameghino 1891
+
Anissolornis excavatus Ameghino 1891
Fm. Aramidae Bonaparte 1854 [limpkin]
+
G. †Aramornis Wetmore 1926
+
Aramornis longurio Wetmore 1926
G. Aramus Viellot 1816 [limpkin]
+
Aramus guarauna Linnaeus 1762 [limpkin]
Aramus paludigrus Rasmussen 1997
G. †Badistornis Wetmore 1940
+
Badistornis aramus Wetmore 1940
G. †Gnotornis Wetmore 1942
+
Gnotornis aramiellus Wetmore 1942
G. †Asiavis Nessov 1986
+
Asiavis phosphatica Nessov 1986
G. †Bumbanipes Zelenkov 2021
+
Bumbanipes aramoides Zelenkov 2021
G. †Bumbaniralla Zelenkov 2021
+
Subor. Cariamae Fürbringer 1888
+
Fm. †Ameghinornithidae Mourer-Chauviré 1981
+
G. †Aenigmavis Peters 1987
+
Aenigmavis sapea Peters 1987
Infraor. Cariamides
+
Superfm. Cariamoidea
+
Fm. †Bathornithidae Wetmore 1927
+
G. †Bathornis Wetmore 1927
+
Invalid names: Neocathartes Wetmore 1950 [synonym]
G. †Eutreptornis Cracraft 1971
G. †Paracrax Brodkorb 1964
Fm. †Hermosiornithidae Kraglievich 1932
+
G. †Mesembriornis Moreno 1889
+
Invalid names: Hermosiornis Rovereto 1914 [synonym], Palaeociconia Moreno 1889 [synonym], Prophororhacos [synonym]
G. †Gradiornis Mayr 2007
+
Fm. †Idiornithidae Brodkorb 1965
+
G. †Dynamopterus Milne-Edward 1891
+
Dynamopterus boulei Gaillard 1939
Dynamopterus gaillardi Cracraft 1973
Dynamopterus gallicus Milne-Edwards 1891
Dynamopterus gracilis Milne-Edwards 1892
Dynamopterus minor Milne-Edwards 1891
Dynamopterus velox Milne-Edwards 1891
+
Invalid names: Idiornis cursor Milne-Edwards 1892 [synonym]
G. †Oblitavis Mourer-Chauvire 1983
G. †Occitaniavis Mourer-Chauvire 1983
G. †Itaboravis Mayr et al. 2011
+
Itaboravis elaphrocnemoides Mayr et al. 2011
Fm. †Phorusrhacidae Ameghino 1889 [terror bird]
+
G. †Andalgalornis Patterson and Kraglievich 1960
+
Andalgalornis ferox Patterson and Kraglievich 1960
Andalgalornis steulleti Kraglievich 1931
G. †Andrewsornis Patterson 1941
+
Andrewsornis abbotti Patterson 1941
Subfm. †Brontornithinae Moreno and Mercerat 1891
+
G. †Ameghinia Sharpe
G. †Paraphysornis Alvarenga 1993
+
Paraphysornis brasiliensis Alvarenga 1982
Invalid names: Callornis Ameghino 1894 [nomen dubium]
G. †Devincenzia Kraglievich 1932
+
Devincenzia gallinali Kraglievich 1932
Devincenzia pozzi Kraglievich, 1931
Invalid names: Onactornis Cabrera 1939 [synonym]
G. †Kelenken Bertelli et al. 2007
+
Kelenken guillermoi Bertelli et al. 2007
G. †Liornis Ameghino 1894
+
G. †Llallawavis Degrange et al. 2015
+
Llallawavis scagliai Degrange et al. 2015
G. †Procariama Rovereto 1914
+
Procariama simplex Rovereto 1914
Invalid names: Hermosiorninae Rovereto 1914 [synonym], Prophororhacinae [synonym]
G. †Patagorhacos Agnolin and Chafrat 2015
+
Patagorhacos terrificus Agnolin and Chafrat 2015
Subfm. †Patagornithinae Mercerat 1897
+
G. †Patagornis Moreno and Mercerat 1891
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Patagornis marshi Moreno and Mercerat 1891
+
Invalid names: Palaeociconia cristata Moreno and Mercerat 1891 [synonym], Phororhacos inflatus Ameghino 1891 [synonym]
Invalid names: Morenomerceraria Lambrecht 1933 [synonym], Tolmodus Ameghino 1891 [synonym]
Invalid names: Palaeociconiinae [synonym], Tolmodinae Kraglievich, 1932 [synonym]
Subfm. †Phorusrhacinae Ameghino 1899
+
G. †Phorusrhacos Ameghino 1887
+
Phororhacos affinis Ameghino 1899
Phororhacos deautieri Kraglievich 1931
Phorusrhacos longissimus Ameghino 1887
+
Invalid names: Callornis giganteus Ameghino 1894 [synonym], Darwinornis copei Moreno and Mercerat 1891 [synonym], Darwinornis socialis Moreno and Mercerat 1891 [synonym], Darwinornis zitteli Moreno and Mercerat 1891 [synonym], Eucallornis giganteus Ameghino 1901 [synonym], Liornis minor Dolgopol de Saez 1927 [synonym], Mesembriornis quatrefragesi Moreno and Mercerat 1891 [synonym], Mesembriornis studeri Moreno and Mercerat 1891 [synonym], Owenornis affinis Moreno and Mercerat 1891 [synonym], Owenornis lydekkeri Moreno and Mercerat 1891 [synonym], Phororhacos platygnathus Ameghino 1891 [synonym], Phororhacos sehuensis Ameghino 1891 [synonym], Stereornis gaudryi Moreno and Mercerat 1891 [synonym], Stereornis rollieri Moreno and Mercerat 1891 [synonym], Titanornis mirabilis Mercerat 1893 [synonym]
Invalid names: Darwinornis Moreno and Mercerat 1891 [synonym], Eucallornis Ameghino 1901 [synonym], Owenornis Moreno and Mercerat 1891 [synonym], Stephanornis Mercerat 1893 [synonym], Stereornis Moreno and Mercerat 1891 [synonym], Titanornis Mercerat 1893 [synonym]
G. †Titanis Brodkorb 1963
+
Titanis walleri Brodkorb 1963
G. †Physornis Ameghino 1895
+
Physornis fortis Ameghino 1894
+
Invalid names: Aucornis euryrhyncus Ameghino 1898 [synonym]
Subfm. †Psilopterinae Dolgopol de Saez 1927
+
G. †Eleutherornis Schaub 1940
+
Eleutherornis cotei Galliard 1936
Eleutherornis helveticus Schaub 1940
G. †Paleopsilopterus Alvarenga 1985
+
G. †Psilopterus Moreno and Mercerat 1891
+
Psilopterus bachmanni Moreno and Mercerat 1891
+
Invalid names: Phororhacos delicatus Amegino 1891 [synonym]
Psilopterus colzecus Tonni and Tambussi 1988
Psilopterus communis Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Psilopterus intermedius Moreno and Mercerat 1891
Psilopterus lemoinei Moreno and Mercerat 1891
+
Invalid names: Pelecyornis tubulatus Ameghino 1894 [synonym], Phororhacos modicus Ameghino 1894 [synonym], Psilopterus australis Moreno and Mercerat 1891 [synonym], Staphylornis erythacus Mercerat 1897 [synonym], Staphylornis gallardoi Mercerat 1897 [synonym]
Invalid names: Pelecyornis Ameghino 1891 [synonym], Staphylornis Mercerat 1897 [synonym]
Invalid names: Pelecyorninae Ameghino 1891 [synonym]
Invalid names: Darwinornithidae Moreno and Mercerat 1891 [synonym], Devincenziidae Kraglievich 1932 [synonym], Mesembriorniidae Kraglievich 1932 [synonym]
Invalid names: Otides Sibley 1988 [empty], Phororhacoidea Patterson 1941 [invalid subgroup], Phororhacosidae Ameghino 1889 [empty]
Subor. Eurypygae
+
Infraor. Eurypygides Sibley 1988
+
Fm. Eurypygidae Selby 1840
+
G. Eurypyga Illiger 1811 [sunbitterns]
+
Eurypyga helias Pallas 1781 [sunbittern]
Infraor. Rhynochetides Sharpe 1891
+
Subfm. Aptornithinae Bonaparte 1856
+
G. †Aptornis Mantell 1848
+
Aptornis defossor Owen 1871
Aptornis otidiformes Owen 1844
Aptornis proasciarostratus Worthy et al. 2011
Subor. Grues Bonaparte 1854
+
Superfm. Gruoidea Stejneger 1885
+
Fm. †Eogruidae Wetmore 1934
+
G. †Eogrus Wetmore 1934
+
Eogrus aeola Wetmore 1934
Eogrus wetmorei Brodkorb 1967
G. †Sonogrus Kurochkin 1981
Fm. †Parvigruidae Mayr 2005
+
G. †Parvigrus Mayr 2005
+
Parvigrus pohli Mayr 2005
G. †Rupelrallus Fischer 1997
Invalid names: Psophioidea [empty]
Fm. Gruidae Vigors 1825 [crane]
+
G. Antigone Reichenbach 1853
+
Antigone antigone Linnaeus 1758 [Sarus crane]
Antigone canadensis Linnaeus 1758 [Sandhill crane]
Antigone canadensis pratensis Meyer 1794 [sandhill crane]
Antigone cubensis Fischer and Stephan 1971
Antigone rubicunda Perry 1810 [brolga]
Antigone vipio Pallas 1811 [White-naped crane]
Subfm. Balearicinae Brasil 1913
+
G. Balearica Brisson [crowned cranes]
+
Balearica excelsa Milne-Edwards 1871
Balearica pavonina Linnaeus 1758 [Black crowned-crane]
Balearica regulorum Bennett 1834 [Grey crowned-crane]
G. Bugeranus Gloger 1842
+
Bugeranus carunculatus Gmelin 1789 [wattled crane]
G. †Geranopsis Lydekker 1891
+
Geranopsis hastingsiae Lydekker 1891
Subfm. Gruinae
+
G. †Aletornis Marsh 1872
+
Aletornis bellus Marsh 1872
Aletornis gracilis Marsh 1872
Aletornis nobilis Marsh 1872
Aletornis pernix Marsh 1872
Aletornis venustus Marsh 1872
G. Anthropoides Vieillot 1816 [cranes]
+
Anthropoides paradiseus Lichtenstein 1793 [Blue crane]
Anthropoides virgo Linnaeus 1758 [Demoiselle crane]
G. Grus Brisson 1760 [crane]
+
Grus americana Linnaeus 1758 [Whooping crane]
Grus conferta Miller and Sibley 1942
Grus grus Linnaeus 1758 [Common crane]
Grus japonensis Muller 1776 [Red-crowned crane]
Grus latipes Wetmore 1960
Grus marshi Shufeldt 1915
Grus melitensis Lydekker 1890
Grus mexicanus Müller 1776
+
Invalid names: Grus haydeni Marsh 1870 [synonym]
Grus minor Miller 1910
Grus moldavica Kurochkin and Ganea 1972
Grus monacha Temminck 1835 [Hooded crane]
Grus nannodes Wetmore and Martin 1930
Grus nigricollis Przevalski 1876 [Black-necked crane]
Grus pentellici Gaudry 1862
Grus primigenia Milne-Edwards 1871
Grus proavus Marsh 1872
Grus turfa Portis 1884
Invalid names: Baeopteryx Wetmore 1960 [synonym], Megalornis Gray 1841 [synonym]
G. Leucogeranus Bonaparte 1855
+
Leucogeranus leucogeranus Pallas 1773 [Siberian crane]
G. †Palaeogrus Portis 1884
+
Palaeogrus hordwelliensis Lydekker 1891
Palaeogrus princeps Lydekker 1891
G. †Pliogrus Lambrecht 1933
+
Pliogrus germanicus Lambrecht 1933
G. †Protogrus Lambrecht 1933
Fm. Heliornithidae Gray 1841
+
G. Heliopais Sharpe 1893
+
Heliopais personatus Gray 1849 [masked finfoot]
G. Heliornis Bonnaterre 1791 [sungrebes]
+
Heliornis fulica Boddaert 1783 [sungrebe]
G. Podica Lesson 1831
+
Podica senegalensis Vieillot 1817 [African finfoot]
G. †Horezmavis Nessov and Borkin 1983
+
Horezmavis eocretacea Nessov and Borkin 1983
+
G. †Itardiornis Maurer-Chauviré 1995
+
Itardiornis hessae Maurer-Chauviré 1995
G. †Messelornis Hesse 1988
+
Messelornis cristata Hesse 1988
Messelornis nearctica Hesse 1992
G. †Pellornis Bertelli et al. 2011
+
Pellornis mikkelseni Bertelli et al. 2011
G. †Walbeckornis Mayr 2007
+
Walbeckornis creber Mayr 2007
Fm. Psophiidae Bonaparte 1831
+
G. Psophia Linnaeus 1758 [trumpeters]
+
Psophia crepitans Linnaeus 1758 [Grey-winged trumpeter]
Psophia dextralis Conover 1934 [Olive-winged trumpeter]
Psophia leucoptera Spix 1825 [White-winged trumpeter]
Psophia obscura Pelzeln 1857 [Black-winged trumpeter]
Psophia ochroptera Pelzeln 1857 [Ochre-winged trumpeter]
Psophia viridis Spix 1825 [Green-winged trumpeter]
Fm. Rallidae Vigors 1825 [rail]
+
G. Amaurornis Reichenbach 1853
+
Amaurornis cinerea Vieillot 1819 [white-browed crake]
Amaurornis isabellina Schlegel 1865 [Isabelline bush-hen]
Amaurornis magnirostris Lambert 1998 [Talaud bush-hen]
Amaurornis marginalis Hartlaub 1857 [Striped crake]
Amaurornis moluccana Wallace 1865 [Pale-vented bush-hen]
Amaurornis olivacea Meyen 1834 [plain bush-hen]
Amaurornis phoenicurus Pennant 1769 [white-breasted waterhen]
Invalid names: Poliolimnas Sharpe 1893 [synonym]
G. †Aphanocrex Wetmore 1963
+
Aphanocrex podarces Wetmore 1963 [Saint Helena rail]
G. Aramides Pucheran 1845
+
Aramides cajaneus Statius Muller 1776 [Gray-necked wood-rail]
Aramides saracura Spix 1825 [Slaty-breasted wood-rail]
G. Atlantisia Lowe 1923
G. †Australlus Worthy and Boles 2011
+
Australlus disneyi Boles 2005
Australlus gagensis Worthy and Boles 2011
G. †Capellirallus Falla 1954
+
Capellirallus karamu Falla 1954
G. Coturnicops Gray 1825
+
Coturnicops avita Feduccia 1968
Coturnicops noveboracensis Gmelin 1789 [yellow rail]
G. Crex Bechstein 1803
+
Crex crex Linnaeus 1758 [corn crake]
G. Cyanolimnas Barbour and Peters 1927
+
Cyanolimnas cerverai Barbour and Peters 1927 [Zapata rail]
G. Dryolimnas Sharpe 1893
+
Dryolimnas augusti Mourer-Chauviré et al. 1999 [Réunion rail]
Dryolimnas cuvieri Pucheran 1845 [white-throated rail]
G. †Eocrex Wetmore 1931
+
Eocrex primus Wetmore 1931
G. †Erythromachus Milne-Edwards 1874
+
Erythromachus leguati Milne-Edwards 1874 [Rodrigues rail]
G. Fulica Linnaeus 1758
+
Fulica alai Peale 1848 [Hawaiian coot]
Fulica americana Gmelin 1789 [American coot]
+
Fulica americana shufeldti Brodkorb 1964
+
Invalid names: Fulica minor Shufeldt 1891 [replaced]
Invalid names: Fulica hesterna Howard 1963 [synonym]
Fulica ardesiaca Tschudi 1843 [Andean coot]
Fulica armillata Vieillot 1817 [red-gartered coot]
Fulica atra Linnaeus 1758 [common coot]
+
Invalid names: Fulica prior De Vis 1888 [synonym]
Fulica chathamensis Forbes 1892 [Chatham coot]
Fulica cornuta Bonaparte 1853 [Horned coot]
Fulica cristata Gmelin 1789 [red-knobbed coot]
Fulica gigantea Eydoux and Souleyet 1841 [Giant coot]
Fulica infelix Brodkorb 1961
Fulica leucoptera Vieillot 1817 [white-winged coot]
Fulica newtonii Milne-Edwards 1867 [Mascarene coot]
Fulica picapicensis Fisher and Stephan 1971
Fulica podagrica Brodkorb 1965 [coot]
Fulica prisca Hamilton 1893 [New Zealand coot]
Fulica rufifrons Philppi and Landbeck 1861 [red-fronted coot]
Fulica stekelesi Tchernov 1968
G. †Fulicaletornis Lambrecht 1933
Subfm. †Fulicinae Nitzsch 1820
+
G. †Nesophalaris Brodkorb and Dawson 1962
G. †Palaeolimnas Forbes 1892
G. Gallinula Brisson 1760 [moorhen]
+
Gallinula balcanica Boev 1997
Gallinula chloropus Linnaeus 1758 [Eurasian moorhen]
+
Invalid names: Gallinula brodkorbi McCoy 1963 [synonym]
Gallinula gigantea Tchernov 1980
Gallinula hodgenorum Scarlett 1955 [Hodgen's rail]
Gallinula kansarum Brodkorb 1967
Gallinula peralta De Vis 1892
Gallinula strenuipes De Vis 1888
Gallinula tenebrosa Gould 1846 [dusky moorhen]
+
G. †Palaeocrex Wetmore 1927
+
Palaeocrex fax Wetmore 1927
G. Gallirallus Lafresnaye 1841
+
Gallirallus astolfoi Salvador et al. 2021
Gallirallus australis Sparrman 1786 [weka]
Gallirallus dieffenbachii Gray 1843 [Dieffenbach's rail]
Gallirallus epulare Kirchman and Steadman 2007 [Nuku Hiva rail]
Gallirallus gracilitibia Kirchman and Steadman 2007 [Ua Huka rail]
Gallirallus huiatua Steadman et al. 2000
Gallirallus insignis Forbes 1892
Gallirallus lafresnayanus Verreaux and des Murs 1860 [New Caledonian rail]
Gallirallus minor Hamilton 1892
Gallirallus modestus Hutton 1872 [Chatham Islands rail]
Gallirallus okinawae Yamashina and Mano 1981 [Okinawa rail]
Gallirallus owstoni Rothschild 1895 [Guam rail]
Gallirallus philippensis Linnaeus 1766 [buff-banded rail]
Gallirallus philippensis macquariensis Hutton 1879 [Macquarie Island rail]
Gallirallus ripleyi Steadman 1987 [Mangaia rail]
Gallirallus roletti Kirchman and Steadman 2007 [Tahuata rail]
Gallirallus storrsolsoni Kirchman and Steadman 2006
Gallirallus vekamatolu Kirchman and Steadman 2005 [Eua rail]
Invalid names: Hypotaenidia Reichenbach 1853 [synonym], Ocydromus Wagler 1830 [synonym], Tricholimnas Sharpe 1893 [synonym]
G. Hapalocrex Ridgway 1920
+
Hapalocrex flaviventer Boddaert 1783 [yellow-breasted crake]
Subfm. Himantornithinae Bonaparte 1856
+
G. Himantornis Hartlaub 1855 [Nkulengu rails]
+
Himantornis haematopus Hartlaub 1855 [Nkulengu rail]
G. †Hovacrex Brodkorb 1965
+
Hovacrex roberti Andrews 1897 [Hova gallinule]
G. †Ibidopsis Lydekker 1891
+
Ibidopsis hordwelliensis Lydekker 1891
G. Laterallus Bonaparte 1854
+
Laterallus exilis Temminck 1831 [gray-breasted crake]
+
Invalid names: Laterallus guti Brodkorb 1952 [synonym]
Laterallus insignis Feduccia 1968
Laterallus jamaicensis Gmelin 1789 [Black rail]
Laterallus melanophaius Vieillot 1819 [Rufous-sided crake]
G. †Latipons Harrison and Walker 1979
+
Latipons gardneri Harrison and Walker 1979
Latipons robinsoni Harrison and Walker 1979
G. Lewinia Gray 1855
+
Lewinia pectoralis Temminck 1831 [Lewin's rail]
G. †Ludiortyx Brodkorb 1964
+
Ludiortyx adelus Olson 1977
Ludiortyx hoffmanni Gervais 1852
G. †Megagallinula Kurochkin 1968
+
Megagallinula harundinea Kurochkin 1968
G. †Microtribonyx Sharpe 1892
G. †Miofulica Lambrecht 1933
+
Miofulica dejardinii Van Beneden 1871
G. †Miorallus Lambrecht 1933
+
Miorallus major Milne-Edwards 1871
G. †Montirallus Mlíkovský 1981
+
Montirallus gypsorum Gervais 1844
G. †Mundia Bourne et al. 2003
+
Mundia elpenor Olson 1973
G. Nesoclopeus Peters 1932
+
Nesoclopeus poecilopterus Hartlaub 1866 [bar-winged rail]
G. †Nesolimnas Andrews 1896
+
Nesolimnas dieffenbachi Sharpe 1875
G. †Nesotrochis Wetmore 1918 [cave-rail]
+
Nesotrochis debooyi Wetmore 1918
Nesotrochis steganinos Olson 1974
G. †Palaeoaramides Lambrecht 1933
+
Palaeoaramides beaumontii Milne-Edwards 1869
+
Invalid names: Rallus dispar Milne-Edwards 1871 [synonym]
Palaeoaramides christyi Milne-Edwards 1871
+
Invalid names: Rallus eximius Milne-Edwards 1869 [synonym]
Palaeoaramides lungi Kurochkin and Ganea 1972
Palaeoaramides minutus Cracraft 1973
Invalid names: Pararallus Lambrecht 1933 [synonym], Tertiariaporphyrula Kurochkin and Ganea 1972 [synonym]
G. †Palaeorallus Wetmore 1931
+
Palaeorallus brodkorbi Cracraft 1973
Palaeorallus troxelli Wetmore 1931
G. †Paraortygometra Lambrecht 1933
+
Paraortygometra porzanoides Milne-Edwards 1871
G. Pardirallus Bonaparte 1856
+
Pardirallus lacustris Brodkorb 1958
G. †Parvirallus Harrison and Walker 1979
+
Parvirallus bassetti Harrison 1984
Parvirallus gassoni Harrison 1984
Parvirallus gracilis Harrison and Walker 1979
Parvirallus medius Harrison 1984
G. †Pediorallus Harrison and Walker 1977
G. †Pleistorallus Worthy 1997
+
Pleistorallus flemingi Worthy 1997
G. Porphyrio Brisson 1760
+
Porphyrio albus White 1790 [White swamphen]
Porphyrio alleni Thomson 1842 [Allen's gallinule]
Porphyrio caerulescens Selys Longchamps 1848 [Reunion gallinule]
Porphyrio flavirostris Gmelin 1789 [Azure gallinule]
Porphyrio hochstetteri Meyer 1883 [South Island takahe]
Porphyrio kukwiedei Balouet and Olson 1989 [New Caledonia gallinule]
Porphyrio mackintoshi De Vis 1892
Porphyrio mantelli Owen 1848 [North Island takahe]
Porphyrio martinica Linnaeus 1766 [purple gallinule]
Porphyrio martinicus Linnaeus 1766 [purple gallinule]
Porphyrio mcnabi Kirchman and Steadman 2006
Porphyrio melanotus Temminck 1820 [Australasian swamphen]
+
Porphyrio melanotus nujagura Boles and Mackness 1994
Porphyrio paepae Steadman 1988 [Marquesan swamphen]
Porphyrio porphyrio Linnaeus 1758 [western swamphen]
Porphyrio porphyrio nujagura Boles and Backness 1994
Invalid names: Ionornis Reichebach 1853 [synonym], Notornis Owen 1848 [synonym], Porphyrula Linnaeus 1758 [synonym]
G. Porzana Vieillot 1816
+
Porzana albicollis Vieillot 1819 [Ash-throated crake]
Porzana astrictocarpus Olson 1973 [Saint Helena crake]
Porzana carolina Linnaeus 1758 [sora]
Porzana estramosi Jánossy 1979
Porzana fasciata Sclater and Salvin 1868 [Black-banded crake]
Porzana fluminea Gould 1843 [Australian crake]
Porzana keplerorum Olson and James 1991
Porzana menehune Olson and James 1991
Porzana piercei Olson and Wingate 2000 [lesser Bermuda crake]
Porzana porzana Linnaeus 1766 [spotted crake]
Porzana ralphorum Olson and James 1991
Porzana rua Steadman 1987 [Mangaia crake]
Porzana severnsi Olson and James 1991
Porzana spiloptera Durnford 1877 [Dot-winged crake]
Porzana ziegleri Olson and James 1991
G. †Quercyrallus Lambrecht 1933
+
Quercyrallus arenarius Milne-Edwards 1891
Quercyrallus ludianus Brodkorb 1963
Quercyrallus quercy Cracraft 1973
G. †Rallicrex Lambrecht 1933
+
Rallicrex kolozsvarensis Lambrecht 1933
Rallicrex polgardiensis Jánossy 1991
G. Rallina Gray 1846
+
Rallina eurizonoides Lafresnaye 1845 [slaty-legged crake]
Rallina tricolor Gray 1858 [red-necked crake]
Subfm. Rallinae Vigors 1825
+
G. †Aphanapteryx Frauenfeld 1868
+
Aphanapteryx bonasia Frauenfeld 1868 [red rail]
+
Invalid names: Didus broeckii Schegel 1854 [synonym]
G. †Belgirallus Mayr and Smith 2001
+
Belgirallus minutus Mayr and Smith 2001
Belgirallus oligocaenus Mayr and Smith 2001
G. †Creccoides Shufeldt 1892
+
Creccoides osbornii Shufeldt 1892
G. †Diaphorapteryx Forbes 1892 [great Chatham Island rail]
+
Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi Forbes 1892
G. †Eulabeornis Gould 1844 [Chestnut rail]
+
Eulabeornis castaneoventris Gould 1844 [Chestnut rail]
G. Gymnocrex Salvadori 1875 [rails]
+
Gymnocrex plumbeiventris Gray 1862 [Bare-eyed rail]
Gymnocrex rosenbergii Schlegel 1866 [Blue-faced rail]
Gymnocrex talaudensis Lambert 1998 [Talaud rail]
G. Habroptila Gray 1861 [Drummer rail]
+
Habroptila wallacii Gray 1860 [Drummer rail]
G. Pareudiastes Hartlaub and Finsch 1871 [moorhen]
+
Pareudiastes pacificus Hartlaub and Finsch 1871 [Samoan moorhen]
Pareudiastes silvestris Mayr 1933 [Makira moorhen]
G. Rallus Linnaeus 1758
+
Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus 1758 [water rail]
Rallus cyanocavi Steadman et al. 2013
Rallus elegans Audubon 1834 [king rail]
Rallus ibycus Olson and Wingate 2000 [lesser Bermuda rail]
Rallus limicola Vieillot 1819 [Virginia rail]
+
Invalid names: Porzana auffenbergi Brodkorb 1954 [synonym]
Rallus longirostris Boddaert 1783 [mangrove rail]
Rallus natator Miller 1942
Rallus phillipsi Wetmore 1957
Rallus prenticei Wetmore 1944
Rallus recessus Olson and Wingate 2001 [flightless rail]
Rallus richmondi Olson 1977
+
Invalid names: Rallus dubius Portis 1887 [replaced]
Rallus sumiderensis Fischer and Stephan 1971
Rallus virginianus Linnaeus 1766
Invalid names: Epirallus Miller 1942 [synonym]
Subfm. Sarothrurinae Verheyen 1957
+
G. Sarothrura Heine 1890
+
Sarothrura affinis Smith 1828
G. Tribonyx Du Bus de Gisignies 1840
+
Tribonyx effluxus De Vis 1892
Tribonyx hodgenorum Olson 1986 [Hodgen's waterhen]
Tribonyx mortierii Du Bus de Gisignies 1840 [Tasmanian nativehen]
Tribonyx ventralis Gould 1837 [black-tailed nativehen]
G. †Vitirallus Worthy 2004
+
Vitirallus watlingi Worthy 2004 [Viti Levu rail]
G. †Wanshuina Hou 1994
+
Wanshuina lii Hou 1994
G. †Youngornis Yeh 1981
G. Zapornia Leach 1816
+
Zapornia atra North 1908 [Henderson Island crake]
Zapornia flavirostra Swainson 1837 [Black crake]
Zapornia fusca Linnaeus 1766 [ruddy-breasted crake]
Zapornia parva Scopoli 1769 [Little crake]
Zapornia pusilla Pallas 1776 [Baillon's crake]
Zapornia sandwichensis Gmelin 1789 [Hawaiian rail]
Zapornia tabuensis Gmelin 1789 [spotless crake]
Fm. †Salmilidae Mayr 2002
+
G. †Salmila Mayr 2000
+
Salmila robusta Mayr 2000
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Entire body: yeso
Adult length: 10 to < 100o
Adult width: 1.0 to < 10o
Adult height: 1.0 to < 10o
Architecture: compact or denseo
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partso
Grouping: solitaryo
Environment: terrestrialo
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: ground dwellingo
Diet: carnivoresubo
Reproduction: oviparouso
Dispersal: direct/internalo
Dispersal 2: mobileo
Created: 2009-01-03 20:39:15
Modified: 2009-01-03 22:39:15
Source: subo = suborder, o = order
References: Marsh 1875, Benton 1983

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Early/Lower Cenomanian to the top of the Holocene or 99.60000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 93.5 Ma

Collections (564 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Early/Lower Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Uzbekistan (Navoi) Horezmavis eocretacea (58208)
Middle Paleocene61.7 - 58.7China (Anhui) Wanshuina lii (132698)
Selandian61.6 - 59.2Germany (Saxony-Anhalt) Walbeckornis sp. A, Walbeckornis sp. B, Walbeckornis creber, Gradiornis walbeckensis (74643)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8Antarctica Phorusrhacidae indet. (52067)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8Denmark Pellornis mikkelseni (130483)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8Belgium (West Flanders) Messelornithidae indet. (68430)
Ypresian - Lutetian56.0 - 41.3Algeria (Bechar region) Lavocatavis africana (77015)
Eocene56.0 - 33.9USA (California) Gruiformes indet. (71669)
Eocene56.0 - 33.9France (Île-de-France) Tringa hoffmanni (191085)
Wasatchian55.8 - 50.3USA (Virginia) Messelornis sp. (15595)
Wasatchian55.8 - 50.3USA (Wyoming) Eogruidae indet. (15590) Palaeorallus troxelli (74333)
Early/Lower Eocene55.8 - 48.6Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) Paleopsilopterus itaboraiensis, Itaboravis elaphrocnemoides (118314)
Early/Lower Eocene55.8 - 48.6Mongolia (Omnogov) Bumbanipes aramoides, Bumbaniralla walbeckornithoides (114685)
Wasatchian - Bridgerian55.8 - 46.2USA (Wyoming) Eocrex primus (74332)
Bridgerian50.3 - 46.2USA (Wyoming) Aletornis nobilis, Aletornis bellus (16228) Rallidae indet. (16296)
MP 1148.6 - 40.4Germany (Hessen) Dynamopterus sp., Gruiformes indet. B, Gruiformes indet. A (120798) Dynamopterus tuberculatus (22701)
Mustersan48.0 - 42.0Argentina (Chubut) Psilopterinae indet. (38879)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3Argentina (Chubut) Psilopterinae indet. (44956)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3United Kingdom (England) Parvirallus gracilis, Latipons gardneri, Latipons robinsoni (41992)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3France (Rhone) Eleutherornis cotei (151252)