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Laridae (gull)

Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Laridae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1825Laridae Vigors
1902Laridae Hay p. 525
1933Laridae Lambrecht p. 542
1955Laridae Brodkorb p. 24
1975Laridae Olson p. 27
1988Laridae Carroll
1990Laridae Chandler p. 132
1992Laridae Baird p. 26
1992Laridae Guthrie p. 323
1992Laridae Parmalee p. 314
2001Laridae Olson and Rasmussen p. 267
2002Laridae Warheit p. 36
2003Laridae Gohlich p. 244
2004Laridae Mourer-Chauviré et al. p. 310
2007Laridae Livezey and Zusi p. 92
2007Laridae Worthy et al. p. 23
2011Laridae De Pietri et al. p. 814
2011Laridae Smith p. 30 figs. Figure 14
2017Laridae Clements et al.
2018Laridae Carnevale and Godfrey p. 189

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
RankNameAuthor
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Theropoda()
Neotheropoda
AverostraPaul 2002
Tetanurae
orderAvetheropoda
suborderCoelurosauria
Maniraptora
Paraves
classAves
orderCharadriiformesHuxley 1867
familyLaridaeVigors 1825
familyLaridaeVigors 1825

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Entire body: yeso
Adult length: 10 to < 100o
Adult width: 1.0 to < 10o
Adult height: 1.0 to < 10o
Architecture: compact or denseo
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partso
Grouping: solitaryo
Environment: marineo
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: ground dwellingo
Diet: carnivoresubo
Reproduction: oviparouso
Dispersal: direct/internalo
Dispersal 2: mobileo
Created: 2017-04-17 10:41:05
Modified: 2017-04-17 10:41:05
Source: subo = suborder, o = order
References: Benton 1983, Bush and Bambach 2015, Marsh 1875

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Rupelian to the top of the Holocene or 33.90000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 28.1 Ma

Collections (184 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Rupelian33.9 - 28.1Germany (Saxony) Laridae indet. (65173)
Oligocene33.9 - 23.03USA (Oregon) Larus pristinus, Limicolavis pluvianella (176030)
Aquitanian - Langhian23.03 - 13.82USA (North Carolina) Larus sp. (48887)
Altonian19.0 - 15.9New Zealand (South Island) Laridae indet. (73690 126289)
MN 515.97 - 13.65Austria Laridae indet. (51002)
Barstovian15.97 - 13.6USA (Florida) Larus elmori (122350 122351)
Zanclean5.333 - 3.6USA (North Carolina) Larus ribibundus, Larus sp., Larus argentatus, Larus delawarensis, Larus atricilla, Larus minutus, Sterna maxima, Sterna nilotica (52582)
Pliocene5.333 - 2.588USA (Florida) Larus elmorei (176044)
Pliocene5.333 - 2.588South Africa (Langebaanweg) Laridae indet. (37207)
Blancan4.9 - 1.8USA (California) Larus sp. (177996 178020) Rissa estesi (178007 178017) Sterna sp. (178010)
Piacenzian3.6 - 2.588USA (Florida) Larus sp., Larus perpetuus, Larus lacus (22712)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Spain (Granada) Laridae indet. (34898)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Greece (Chalkidiki) Larus sp. (183123)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117USA (Oregon) Larus sp. (59062)
Calabrian1.806 - 0.781Italy Larus canus (197790)
Calabrian1.806 - 0.781USA (Virginia) Sterna sp. (104698)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Colorado) Larus sp. (152653)
Middle Pleistocene0.781 - 0.126Italy Sternidae indet. (197927)
Middle Pleistocene0.781 - 0.126Italy (Siracusa) Larus ridibundus, Larus minutus (175900)
Rancholabrean (glacial)0.3 - 0.012USA (California) Larus sp. (20624)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Russian Federation Larus ridibundus (194811)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Larus sp. (34269)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117New Zealand (South Island) Larus dominicanus, Larus novaehollandiae (87814)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Peru Larus atricilla, Larus pipixcan (71346)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Portugal Larus sp. (197768)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Larus sp. (20636)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Azerbaijan Larus cachinnans (193356)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Wyoming) Larus sp. (93277)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Oregon) Larus argentatus, Larus robustus, Larus oregonus, Larus philadelphia, Sterna forsteri, Hydrochelidon nigra, Sterna elegans, Xema sabini (176222) Larus californicus, Larus robustus, Larus oregonus, Larus philadelphia, Sterna forsteri, Chlidonias nigra (93251)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Virginia) Larus hyperboreus (57706 73485)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Spain Chlidonias niger (197938)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Saint Helena Sterna fuscata (176071)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117United Kingdom Rissa tridactyla (124956)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Japan (Aomori) Larus sp. (101898)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Alabama) Sterna sp. (84181)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Greece (Peloponnesus) Chlidonias sp. (184245)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Seychelles (Aldabra) Larus sp. (192430)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Ecuador Larus pipixcan, Larosterna inca (152599)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (California) Larus californicus (120830) Larus californicus, Larus philadelphia (120827) Larus glaucescens (20639) Larus sp., Larus californicus (125236) Larus sp., Larus delawarensis, Larus californicus, Rissa tridactyla, Larus philadelphia (176102) Larus sp., Larus oregonus (20273) Larus sp., Rissa tridactyla (125234)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117East Timor Laridae indet. (204407)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Italy Laridae indet. (197769)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117New Zealand (North Otago) Larus dominicanus (87789)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Australia (South Australia) Larus novaehollandiae, Sterna nereis (181314)
Late/Upper Pleistocene - Holocene0.126 - 0.0Russian Federation Sterna sp., Larus canus (194812)
Late/Upper Pleistocene - Holocene0.126 - 0.0Bahamas (San Salvador) Sterna fuscata, Anous stolidus (190743)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Canada (Quebec) Sterna paradisaea (51005)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Cook Islands Anous minutus, Anous stolidus, Gygis alba (193453) Anous stolidus (193450 194756 194758 194761) Gygis alba (194760 194763 194765) Gygis alba, Procelsterna cerulea, Gygis microrhyncha (194764)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Marshall Islands Laridae indet. (194995 194996) Laridae indet., Sterninae indet. (194999) Sterninae indet. (194997)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0South Africa Larus dominicanus, Larus hartlaubii (177148) Larus dominicanus, Sterna bergii, Sterna hirundo (177146) Larus dominicanus, Sterna sandvicensis (177147)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Argentina Larus spp. (162173)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Pitcairn Anous spp., Gygis alba (193762 193789 193792 193793) Anous spp., Gygis alba, Procelsterna cerulea (193763 193787 193788 193790 193791) Anous spp., Sterna fuscata, Gygis alba (193764) Anous spp., Sterna fuscata, Gygis alba, Procelsterna cerulea (193786) Gygis alba (193794)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0New Zealand Larus dominicanus (198088) Larus dominicanus, Larus novaehollandiae (194614) Larus novaehollandiae, Sterna striata (194616) Larus sp., Larus dominicanus (195150) Larus spp., Larus dominicanus, Sterna striata (194618) Larus spp., Larus dominicanus, Sterna striata, Sterna albostriata (194619) Larus spp., Larus dominicanus, Sterna striata, Sterna nereis, Sterna caspia, Sterna albostriata (100554) Sterna albostriata (195151)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0French Polynesia Anous stolidus (194674) Gygis alba (194672 194673 198008 198009 198010 198024 198026) Laridae indet. (198011 198027) Laridae indet., Gygis alba (198022 198023) Sterninae indet., Anous minutus, Anous stolidus, Gygis alba, Larus n. sp. (194675)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Tonga Anous minutus, Anous stolidus, Gygis candida (194751) Anous stolidus (194752)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0USA (California) Laridae indet. (194880) Larus sp. (194917) Larus sp. large (194908 194909 194911 194925 194926 194928) Larus sp. large, Larus sp. small (194906 194907 194910 194912 194927) Larus sp., Larus sp. large, Larus sp. small (194914)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0USA (Alaska) Larus hyperboreus (177179) Larus sp., Larus glaucescens, Larus hyperboreus, Rissa brevirostris (177178)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Venezuela Laridae indet., Anous sp., Anous stolidus (197935) Laridae indet., Leucophaeus atricilla (197932) Leucophaeus atricilla (197931 197934)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Mexico (Chiapas) Sterna sp., Sterna sandvicensis (195047)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Larus scoresbii (194620)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0USA (Florida) Larus argentatus, Larus atricilla, Larus marinus (195050)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Bahamas Larus atricilla (194597) Sterna fuscata (145366)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Greenland Rissa tridactyla, Larus hyperboreus, Pagophila eburnea (162014)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Saint Helena Gygis alba (194214) Larus sp., Gygis alba (176072) Sterna fuscata (155782 176073 194290 194291) Sterna fuscata, Gygis alba (176075 176077 194226 194278) Sterninae indet. (194221)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Micronesia, Federated States of Anous stolidus, Procelsterna cerulea, Sterna lunata (194652) Anous stolidus, Sterna lunata (194653) Sterna sp., Sterninae indet., Anous minutus, Sterna sumatrana, Sterna fuscata, Anous stolidus, Procelsterna cerulea, Gygis candida, Sterna lunata (194650) Sterninae indet., Anous minutus, Sterna sumatrana, Sterna fuscata, Anous stolidus, Procelsterna cerulea, Gygis candida, Sterna lunata (194651)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Congo-Kinshasa Hydroprogne caspia, Larus fuscus, Larus cirrhocephalus (22068)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Niue Anous stolidus (193852 193863 193868 193870 193871 193872) Anous stolidus, Gygis alba (193873) Gygis alba (193874)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Madagascar Larus sp. (195019)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Antarctica Sterna vittata (177180)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0American Samoa Sterninae indet., Anous stolidus, Gygis alba (193800)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Northern Mariana Islands Anous minutus, Anous stolidus, Procelsterna cerulea, Gygis candida (194626) Anous stolidus (194640 194644 194648) Anous stolidus, Gygis candida (194628 194643 194645) Gygis alba (194622) Procelsterna cerulea (194623 194624) Procelsterna cerulea, Gygis candida (194625) Sterna sp., Anous minutus, Anous stolidus, Procelsterna cerulea, Gygis candida, Gygis microrhyncha (194627)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Canada (Newfoundland and Labrador) Laridae indet. (122270)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Australia (Victoria) Larus novaehollandiae (138410)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Russian Federation Laridae indet. (175940) Larus ridibundus (194810)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Finland Larus sp., Laridae indet., Larus canus (177177)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0New Zealand (South Island) Larus dominicanus (87792)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Puerto Rico Thalasseus maximus (194583)