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Tamias (chipmunk)

Mammalia - Rodentia - Sciuridae

Taxonomy
Tamias was named by Illinger (1811). It is extant.

It was assigned to Agilia by Illiger (1811); to Sciurina by Gray (1825); to Sciurinae by Hay (1902); to Tamiini by de Bruijn et al. (1980); to Sciuridae by Illinger (1811), Bryant (1945), Ray (1965), Wilson (1967), Kurten and Anderson (1980) and McKenna and Bell (1997); and to Marmotini by Mercer and Roth (2003).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1811Tamias Illiger p. 83
1811Tamias Illinger
1825Tamia Gray p. 342
1902Tamias Hay p. 720
1945Tamias Bryant p. 371
1965Tamias Ray
1967Tamias Wilson p. 208
1980Tamias Kurten and Anderson p. 220
1980Tamias de Bruijn et al. p. 255
1997Tamias McKenna and Bell
2003Tamias Mercer and Roth

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1874
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
subclassSarcopterygii()
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
subclassAmphibiosauriaKuhn 1967
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
subclassSynapsida
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Mammaliamorpha
RankNameAuthor
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
Theriamorpha(Rowe 1993)
Theriiformes()
Trechnotheria
Cladotheria
Zatheria
subclassTribosphenida()
subclassTheria
Eutheria()
Placentalia
Boreoeutheria
EuarchontogliresMurphy et al. 2001
GliriformesWyss and Meng 1996
Glires()
Simplicidentata()
orderRodentiaBowdich 1821
superfamilySciuroidea
familySciuridae
tribeMarmotini
genusTamiasIllinger 1811

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

G. Tamias Illinger 1811 [chipmunk]
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Tamias aristus Ray 1965
Tamias ateles Hall 1930
Tamias eviensis de Bruijn et al. 1980
Tamias laevidens Cope 1869
Tamias striatus Linnaeus 1758 [eastern chipmunk]
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Invalid names: Sciurus lysteri Richardson 1829 [synonym]
Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
M. D. Bryant 1945Zygomatic plate slants upward at an angle of about 45º to basicranial axis and is more nearly horizontal than in other sciurids; in correlation with this the zygoma is less concave dorsally than in other squirrels, infraorbital foramen pierces zygomatic plate, and infraorbital canal is absent. Infraorbital foramen relatively larger, probably in correlation with origin of ventral head of maxillonasalis muscle (see page 314), and more nearly circular than in other sciurids. Notches in zygomatic plates opposite P4 or occasionally oppo- site anterior edge of M1; width of plates between zygomatic notches and infraorbital foramina correspondingly narrow. Anterior cranial fossa larger than that in terrestrial sciurids, except Otospermophilus and Callospermophilus; interorbital region correspondingly broad. Cranium narrow, slightly inflated, and smoothly rounded. Dorsal outline of skull less convex than in other squirrels except Marmota. Cheek teeth low-crowned (see table 1); ectolophids low and submarginal; prominent mesoconid present on m1 and m2. Form of baculum distinctive (see page 306).
Measurements
partNmean

Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: scansorialf
Diet: granivoref
Diet 2: frugivoref
Reproduction: viviparoussubc
Created: 2005-06-08 10:11:09
Modified: 2005-08-26 13:04:24
Source: f = family, subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Ji et al. 2002, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009, Lillegraven 1979, Nowak 1991

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Barstovian to the top of the Holocene or 16.30000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 15.97 Ma

Collections (74 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Burdigalian20.44 - 15.97Greece Tamias eviensis (68032)
MN 416.9 - 15.97Greece (Thrace) Tamias sp. (68085)
Barstovian16.3 - 12.5USA (Nevada) Eutamias ateles (19097) Tamias ateles (19088)
Barstovian16.3 - 12.5USA (Nebraska) Eutamias ateles (18141 18261) Tamias sp. (18284)
Barstovian16.3 - 12.5USA (Wyoming) Tamias ateles (18868 18990)
Barstovian16.3 - 12.5USA (California) Eutamias ateles (19305 19321) Tamias ateles (19168 19169 19193 19271 19279 19281 19522 19550 19558 214888 214889)
Middle Miocene15.97 - 11.608China (Nei Mongol) Tamias sp. (13484)
Clarendonian12.5 - 9.4USA (California) Tamias ateles (19361 19453 19515)
Clarendonian12.5 - 9.4USA (Nevada) Tamias ateles (18845)
Late/Upper Miocene11.608 - 5.333India (Punjab) Tamias urialis (232616)
Turolian8.7 - 5.333Greece (Central Macedonia) Tamias sp. A (32189)
Turolian8.7 - 5.333Greece Tamias sp. A (31928)
Turolian8.7 - 5.333Russian Federation (Rostovskaya Oblast') Tamias sp. (174455)
Ruscinian5.333 - 3.2Greece (Kozani) Tamias sp. (205084)
Ruscinian5.333 - 3.2Germany (Rheinland-Pfalz) Tamias orlovi (43633)
MN 144.9 - 4.2Poland Tamias orlovi (32240)
MN 154.2 - 3.2Poland Tamias orlovi (33396)
MN 163.2 - 2.588Poland Tamias orlovi (33473 33638)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Poland Tamias sp. (33480)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117USA (Tennessee) Tamias striatus (74240)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117USA (West Virginia) Tamias striatus (123875)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Maryland) Tamias striatus (20302)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (West Virginia) Tamias striatus (20555)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Virginia) Tamias striatus (20388)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Pennsylvania) Tamias striatus (20354)
Middle Pleistocene0.774 - 0.129USA (Virginia) Tamias striatus (104662)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.129 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Tamias aristus (20573)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117USA (Virginia) Tamias sp., Tamias striatus (103991) Tamias striatus (82258 104758 124089)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117USA (Oklahoma) Tamias striatus (93183)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117USA (Michigan) Tamias striatus (200485)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117USA (Georgia) Tamias aristus (13066)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (late glacial)0.129 - 0.0117USA (Oklahoma) Tamias striatus (74144 74145)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.129 - 0.0117USA (West Virginia) Tamias striatus (93332 124198 124199)
Late/Upper Pleistocene - Holocene0.129 - 0.0USA (Missouri) Tamias striatus (63565 63566 63567 63568)
Late/Upper Pleistocene - Holocene0.129 - 0.0USA (Virginia) Tamias striatus (104034 104035 104672 104689 104691)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0USA (Ohio) Tamias striatus (195062 195066 195069)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Canada (Quebec) Tamias striatus (221970 224189)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Canada (Ontario) Tamias striatus (221863)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0USA (Virginia) Tamias striatus (104040)