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Microtus (vole)

Mammalia - Rodentia - Cricetidae

Microtus was named by Schrank (1798). It is extant. Its type is Mus arvalis. It is the type genus of Microtinae.

It was assigned to Muridae by Schultz and Howard (1935); to Microtinae by Hay (1902) and Kurten and Anderson (1980); to Arvicolidae by Shoshani et al. (1989); to Cricetidae by Schrank (1798), Wilson (1967) and McKenna and Bell (1997); to Arvicolinae by Czaplewski et al. (2002) and Seymour (2004); and to Arvicolini by Galewski et al. (2006).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1798Microtus Schrank
1831Pitymys McMurtrie
1858Pedomys Baird
1863Phaiomys Blyth
1867Terricola Fatio
1871Arvicola didelta Cope
1871Arvicola involuta Cope
1871Arvicola didelta Cope p. 89
1896Microtus didelta Cope
1899Microtus dideltus Cope
1902Microtus Hay p. 728
1902Microtus didelta Hay p. 728
1912Pitymys Miller
1933Blanfordimys Argyropulo
1935Microtus Schultz and Howard p. 282
1967Microtus Wilson p. 210
1967Pitymys Wilson p. 210
1974Pitymys Martin
1974Pitymys dideltus Martin
1974Pitymys involutus Martin
1978Microtus (Pedomys) van der Meulen
1980Microtus Kurten and Anderson p. 258
1983Pitymys Repenning
1985Pitymys Zakrzewski
1988Pitymys Barnosky and Rasmussen
1988Pitymys Repenning and Grady
1989Microtus Shoshani et al. p. 436
1990Pedomys Pfaff
1990Pitymys Pfaff
1992Pedomys Repenning
1995Pedomys Morgan and White
1995Pitymys Morgan and White
1997Microtus McKenna and Bell
1997Pedomys McKenna and Bell
1997Pitymys McKenna and Bell
1997Terricola McKenna and Bell
2002Microtus Czaplewski et al. p. 102
2004Microtus Seymour
2006Microtus Galewski et al.

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EubilateriaAx 1987
phylumChordataHaeckel 1874
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassAmphibiosauriaKuhn 1967
Theriamorpha(Rowe 1993)
EuarchontogliresMurphy et al. 2001
GliriformesWyss and Meng 1996
orderRodentiaBowdich 1821
infraorderMyodontaSchaub 1958
superfamilyMuroideaIlliger 1811
familyCricetidaeFischer von Waldheim 1817
tribeArvicoliniGiebel 1855
genusMicrotusSchrank 1798

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

G. Microtus Schrank 1798 [vole]
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Subg. †Microtus (Stenocranius) Kastschenko 1901
Subg. †Microtus (Tyrrhenicola) Forsyth Major 1905
Microtus agrestis Linnaeus 1761 [field vole]
Microtus arvalis Pallas 1779 [common vole]
Microtus australis Martin 1995
Microtus brecciensis Forsyth Major 1905
Invalid names: Microtus mediterraneus Chaline 1967 [synonym]
Microtus bucharicus Vinogradov 1930
Microtus californicus Peale 1848 [California vole]
Invalid names: Arvicola edax Le Conte 1853 [synonym], Arvicola trowbridgii Baird 1858 [synonym], Microtus scirpensis Bailey 1900 [synonym]
Microtus chrotorrhinus Miller 1894 [rock vole]
Microtus drummondi Audubon and Bachman 1854
Microtus duodecimcostatus de Sélys-Longchamps 1839
Microtus eleniae van der Meulen and Doukas 2001
Microtus guatemalensis Merriam 1898 [Guatemalan vole]
Microtus guentheri Danford and Alston 1880 [Günther's vole]
Microtus guildayi van der Meulen 1978
Invalid names: Arvicola sigmodus Cope 1871 [synonym], Arvicola speothen Cope 1871 [synonym], Arvicola tetradelta Cope 1871 [synonym], Microtus involutus Cope 1871 [synonym]
Microtus hibbardi Holman 1959
Microtus irene Thomas 1911
Microtus kikuchii Kuroda 1920
Microtus leucurus Blyth 1863
Microtus llanensis Hibbard 1944
Microtus longicaudus Merriam 1888 [long-tailed vole]
Invalid names: Arvicola alticolus Merriam 1890 [synonym], Arvicola leucophaeus Allen 1894 [synonym], Arvicola mordax Merriam 1891 [synonym], Microtus angusticeps Bailey 1898 [synonym], Microtus cautus Allen 1899 [synonym], Microtus macrurus Merriam 1898 [synonym], Microtus vellerosus Allen 1899 [synonym]
Microtus mandarinus Milne-Edwards 1871
Microtus meadensis Hibbard 1944
Microtus mexicanus Saussure 1861 [Mexican vole]
Invalid names: Arvicola mogollonensis Mearns 1890 [synonym], Arvicola phaeus Merriam 1892 [synonym], Microtus fulviventer Merriam 1898 [synonym]
Microtus middendorffi Poliakov 1881
Microtus miguelensis Guthrie 1998
Microtus miurus Osgood 1901
Microtus montanus Peale 1848 [montane vole]
Invalid names: Arvicola longirostris Baird 1858 [synonym], Arvicola nanus Merriam 1891 [synonym], Microtus dutcheri Bailey 1898 [synonym], Microtus nevadensis Bailey 1898 [synonym]
Microtus morlani Storer 2004
Microtus oaxacensis Goodwin 1966 [Tarabundi vole]
Microtus ochrogaster Wagner 1842 [prairie vole]
Microtus oeconomus Pallas 1776 [tundra vole]
Microtus paroperarius Hibbard 1944
Microtus pennsylvanicus Ord 1815 [meadow vole]
Invalid names: Arvicola riparius Ord 1825 [synonym]
Microtus pinetorum Le Conte 1830 [woodland vole]
Microtus quasiater Miller 1896
Microtus richardsoni De Kay 1842 [water vole]
Microtus rossiaemeridionalis Ognev 1924 [sibling vole]
Microtus umbrosus Merriam 1898 [Zempoaltepec vole]
Microtus xanthognathus Leach 1815 [taiga vole]
Invalid names: Arvicola didelta Cope 1871 [nomen dubium], Arvicola involuta Cope 1871 [nomen dubium], Blanfordimys Argyropulo 1933 [synonym], Neodon [synonym], Pedomys Baird 1858 [synonym], Phaiomys Blyth 1863 [synonym], Pitymys McMurtrie 1831 [synonym], Terricola Fatio 1867 [synonym]
No diagnoses are available

Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: ground dwellingg
Diet: herbivoreo
Reproduction: viviparoussubc
Created: 2012-05-15 12:44:05
Modified: 2012-05-14 21:44:05
Source: g = genus, o = order, subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Lillegraven 1979, Nowak 1999, Carroll 1988, Ji et al. 2002, Samuels and Van Valkenburgh 2008, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Calabrian to the top of the Holocene or 1.80000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 0.781 Ma

Collections (473 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Pliocene - Pleistocene5.333 - 0.0117Hungary (Barany) Pitymys hintoni (35473)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Tajikistan Microtus lachutensis (34103)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Hungary (Barany) Microtus arvalinus, Microtus gregalis, Microtus ratticepoides, Pitymys arvalidens, Pitymys gregaloides (35457) Microtus arvalinus, Microtus nivalinus, Microtus nivaloides, Microtus ratticepoides, Microtus sp., Pitymys gregaloides, Pitymys arvalidens (35442) Microtus arvalinus, Microtus nivalinus, Microtus ratticepoides, Pitymys hintoni, Pitymys gregaloides, Pitymys arvalidens (35459)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Greece (Macedonia) Microtus pitymyoides (34783)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Spain (Castilla-Leon) Terricola arvalidens, Stenocranius gregaloides (34916)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Germany (Rheinland-Pfalz) Microtus hintoni, Microtus arvaloides, Microtus nivaloides, Microtus ratticepoides, Microtus arvalinus, Microtus gregaloides (35905)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Italy Microtus chalinei, Microtus pliocaenicus (42867)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Romania Microtus arvalidens, Microtus gregaloides, Microtus nivalinus, Microtus nivaloides, Microtus ratticepoides (34008 34009) Microtus arvalidens, Microtus nivalinus (33975) Microtus hintoni, Microtus burgondiae (33974)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Greece (Kalymnos island) Microtus sp. (34770)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Russian Federation (Western Transbaikalia) Microtus mongolicus, Pitymys sp., Microtus oeconomus (40266)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Italy (Foggia) Pitymys arvaloides (40995)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Italy (Verona) Microtus nivalinus, Microtus arvalis, Pitymys sp., Allophaiomys ruffoi (43644)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Ukraine (Rostovskaya Oblast') Microtus hintoni, Microtus arvalinus, Microtus oeconomus (41060)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781United Kingdom Microtus gregalis (34980 34982)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Turkey Microtus nutiensis (39314)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Russian Federation (Krasnodar. Kray) Microtus sp. (41059)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Spain (Granada) Microtus burgondiae (35169)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Greece Microtus nutiensis, Microtus eleniae (34767) Microtus sp. (34785 34786)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Germany (Thüringen) Microtus arvalis (45068)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Greece (Peloponnisos) Microtus rufoi (34766)