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Hemiauchenia

Mammalia - Ungulata - Camelidae

Taxonomy
Hemiauchenia was named by Gervais and Ameghino (1880). It is not extant. Its type is Hemiauchenia paradoxa.

It was synonymized subjectively with Palaeolama by Cabrera (1935) and Guérin and Faure (1999).

It was assigned to Camelidae by Gervais and Ameghino (1880), Kurten and Anderson (1980), Carroll (1988) and Cisneros (2005); and to Lamini by Honey et al. (1998), Webb and Meachen (2004), Ruez (2005) and Meachen (2005).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1878Auchenia vitakeriana Cope p. 380
1880Hemiauchenia Gervais and Ameghino
1884Holomeniscus Cope p. 16
1884Holomeniscus vitakeriana Cope p. 17
1898Camelops vitakerianus Wortman
1902Camelops vitakerianus Hay p. 679
1928Tanupolama Stock p. 31
1940Tanupolama Olson p. 54
1945Tanupolama Simpson p. 150
1965Tanupolama vitakerianus Webb
1965Tanupolama Webb p. 44
1980Hemiauchenia Kurten and Anderson p. 306
1988Hemiauchenia Carroll
1998Hemiauchenia Honey et al. p. 451
2004Hemiauchenia Webb and Meachen p. 350
2005Hemiauchenia Cisneros p. 250
2005Hemiauchenia Meachen p. 438
2005Hemiauchenia Ruez, Jr. p. 742

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
RankNameAuthor
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
orderUngulata(Linnaeus 1766)
orderArtiodactyla()
suborderTylopoda()
superfamilyCameloidea
familyCamelidae
subfamilyCamelinaeGray 1821
tribeLaminiWebb 1965
genusHemiaucheniaGervais and Ameghino 1880

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
S. D. Webb 1965 (Tanupolama)Tall, slender, llamalike camelid; larger than extant Lama. Cranium elongate, especially in rostral region; dorsal surface flat; maxillary fossa deep; condyloid fossa narrow; paroccipital process short; posterolateral groove in bulla deep and nar- row; bulla separated from basioccipital as in Lama. Ventral surface of mandible straight. Dental for- mula: I 1/3, C 1/1, P 2/3-1, M 3/3; upper molars with moderate to strong styles; external ribs weaker than in Lama; P 1 and P 3 present or absent; D13 often retained (see Dentition); lower molars with lingual face flatter than in Lama; "llama buttresses" seldoin as ·well.developed as in Lama but stronger than in Camelops or Palaeolama; M8 with third lo~e more strongly connected than in Lama (except in early wear stages) . Limbs much longer than in Lama; metapodials about twice as long as in Lama.
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: terrestrialo
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: ground dwellingf
Diet: browserg
Diet 2: grazerg
Comments: one specimen suggests grazing and another browsing based on stable isotopes (MacFadden and Cerling 1996)g
Created: 2009-01-04 10:39:26
Modified: 2009-01-04 12:39:26
Source: g = genus, f = family, o = order, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Nowak 1991, Nowak 1999, MacFadden and Cerling 1996, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range: base of the Clarendonian to the top of the Rancholabrean or 13.60000 to 0.01200 Ma

Collections (227 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Miocene23.03 - 5.333USA (Nevada) Pliauchenia sp. (19129)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333USA (New Mexico) H. sp. (19352)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333USA (Arizona) H. sp. (18933)
Clarendonian13.6 - 10.3USA (Nebraska) H. sp. (18217 18257)
Clarendonian13.6 - 10.3USA (South Dakota) H. sp. (18200)
Late/Upper Clarendonian13.6 - 10.3USA (Florida) H. minima (18554)
Late/Upper Clarendonian13.6 - 10.3USA (New Mexico) H. sp. (19528)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Arizona) H. sp. (19272)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Texas) H. sp. (18072 18073 18211) Tanupolama sp. (18377)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9Mexico (Jalisco) H. sp. (18745)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Nebraska) H. sp. (18225)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Oklahoma) H. sp. (18034 18088)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Kansas) H. sp. (18170)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Florida) H. minima (18564 26549) Procamelus minimus (18563) Tanupolama sp. (18556 18560)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (North Carolina) H. sp. (18550)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (New Mexico) H. sp. (19533)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Nevada) H. sp. (18900)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (California) H. sp. (19419) Tanupolama sp. (19395 19396 19397 19402)
Late/Upper Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (California) H. sp. (175217 175218 175219)
Late/Upper Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9Mexico (Chihuahua) H. sp. (18755)
Late/Upper Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9Mexico (Guanajuato) Palaeolama guanajuatensis (18737)
Late/Upper Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Nevada) H. sp. (19107)
Late/Upper Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Arizona) H. sp. (19514)
Late/Upper Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Florida) H. sp. (18599)
Late/Upper Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (New Mexico) H. sp. (19602)
Late/Upper Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Texas) H. sp. (18036 18093)
early Early Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Texas) H. sp. (19538)
Late/Upper Hemphillian - Blancan10.3 - 1.8USA (Indiana) H. sp. (18320)
Messinian7.246 - 5.333USA (California) H. sp. (19421)
Pliocene5.333 - 2.588USA (Idaho) H. sp. (189134)
Blancan4.9 - 1.8Mexico (Guanajuato) H. gracilis, Camelidae indet. (20077)
Blancan (interglacial)4.9 - 1.8USA (Florida) H. gracilis (98315)
Blancan4.9 - 1.8USA (Florida) H. blancoensis (19753 19755) H. gracilis (101741 101742) H. gracilis, H. blancoensis (19758) H. macrocephala (19752 98320) H. sp. (19754)
Blancan4.9 - 1.8USA (Nevada) H. blancoensis (20006 20007) H. sp. (19965)
Blancan4.9 - 1.8USA (New Mexico) H. blancoensis (19970 19985) H. sp. (19655 19968 19974) H. sp., H. blancoensis (19981)
Blancan4.9 - 1.8Mexico (Sonora) H. sp., H. blancoensis (20322)
Blancan4.9 - 1.8USA (Nebraska) H. sp. (19954) Tanupolama sp. (19955 19963)
Blancan4.9 - 1.8USA (Colorado) Tanupolama blancoensis (19744)
Blancan4.9 - 1.8USA (Texas) H. blancoensis (20027 20033) H. sp. (20060) Tanupolama blancoensis (20023 20050 20052) Tanupolama sp. (20038 20043 20051)
Blancan4.9 - 1.8USA (Idaho) H. sp. (19911 19913)
Blancan4.9 - 1.8Mexico (Baja California Sur) H. sp. (19673 20075)
Blancan4.9 - 1.8USA (Kansas) H. blancoensis (19932 19936 19947) Tanupolama sp. (19927)
Blancan4.9 - 1.8USA (Washington) H. blancoensis (20062) H. sp. (20063)
Blancan4.9 - 1.8USA (California) H. sp. (19663 20088 20097 20103 20112 20113 20115 20116 20117 20118 20119 20120 20121 20122 20540) Tanupolama sp. (19664 19665)
Blancan4.9 - 1.8USA (South Dakota) Tanupolama sp. (20019)
Blancan4.9 - 1.8USA (Arizona) H. sp. (19651 19653 19654 19656) Tanupolama sp. (19624 20303)
Blancan - Irvingtonian4.9 - 0.3USA (New Mexico) H. sp. (20141 20397)
Blancan - Irvingtonian4.9 - 0.3USA (Arizona) H. sp. (19652) Lamini indet. (19617)
Blancan - Irvingtonian4.9 - 0.3USA (South Dakota) H. sp. (20020)
Chapadmalalan4.0 - 3.0Argentina (Buenos Aires) H. sp. (203907)
Piacenzian3.6 - 2.588USA (California) H. sp. (19703)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Bolivia (Tarija) H. paradoxa (142016)
Early/Lower Pleistocene - Middle Pleistocene2.588 - 0.126El Salvador H. seymourensis (70118)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Brazil (Paraiba) H. sp. (71298)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Brazil (Ceara) H. sp. (71301 71302)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) H. paradoxa (147598)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117USA (Mississippi) H. macrocephala (162638)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117USA (South Carolina) H. macrocephala (152904)
Calabrian1.806 - 0.781USA (Florida) H. macrocephala, H. sp. (20384)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Florida) H. macrocephala (20289 20299 20385 20400 20402 20403 20475 20478 20482 20494 58089) H. macrocephala, H. sp. (20308)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (South Dakota) Tanupolama sp. (20389)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3Canada (Alberta) H. hollomani (20417)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Nevada) H. sp. (20011 20012)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Washington) H. sp. (20307)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (New Mexico) H. blancoensis (20558)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Oklahoma) H. macrocephala (20382)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Nebraska) Tanupolama sp. (20347 20348 20375 20500 20501)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Kansas) H. seymourensis (20390) Tanupolama macrocephala (20166) Tanupolama sp. (20295)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (California) H. sp. (20124 20125 20126 20127 20128 20132 20206 20239 20266 20272 20327 20454 28223) H. sp., H. macrocephala (20123) Tanupolama sp. (20387)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Arizona) Tanupolama sp. (20341 20344)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Texas) H. sp. (20164) Holomeniscus macrocephalus, Tanupolama macrocephala (20498) Tanupolama macrocephala (20530) Tanupolama seymourensis (20342)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3Mexico (Aguascalientes) Tanupolama sp. (20283)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (South Carolina) H. macrocephala (79919)
Irvingtonian - Rancholabrean1.8 - 0.012USA (California) H. macrocephala (20486) H. sp. (20542)
Ensenadan1.2 - 0.781Argentina (Cordoba) H. paradoxa (123831)
Ensenadan1.2 - 0.781Argentina (Buenos Aires) H. sp. (199170)
Lujanian0.781 - 0.012Argentina (Buenos Aires) H. paradoxa (71303)
Lujanian0.781 - 0.012Argentina (Entre Ríos) H. paradoxa (203955 203957)
Middle Pleistocene - Late/Upper Pleistocene0.781 - 0.0117Uruguay (Montevideo) H. sp. (120884)
Rancholabrean (glacial)0.3 - 0.012USA (California) Tanupolama sp. (20624)
Rancholabrean0.3 - 0.012USA (Florida) H. macrocephala (20398 20491)
Rancholabrean0.3 - 0.012Mexico (Hidalgo) H. gracilis (113409 113410 170157)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Argentina (Buenos Aires) H. sp. (71316)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Argentina (Formosa) H. paradoxa (114698)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Florida) H. macrocephala (154804)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Mexico (Hidalgo) H. gracilis (190114 190115 190116)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (high glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (New Mexico) H. sp. (76059)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (South Carolina) H. macrocephala (80230)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Wyoming) Tanupolama sp. (93277)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Oregon) Tanupolama sp. (93251)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (late glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Florida) H. macrocephala (154722) H. sp. (74361)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (California) H. macrocephala (20273)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117Canada (Alberta) H. sp. (20615)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Idaho) H. macrocephala (20569)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (California) H. sp. (20609 20646)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Florida) H. macrocephala (20571 20572 20573 20594 20595 20629 20634 79667) Tanupolama sp. (20581)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Tanupolama americana (154771) Tanupolama sp. (154921)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (New Mexico) Tanupolama sp. (93141)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Chile H. paradoxa (190058)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) H. paradoxa (148419 149093 149143)
Late/Upper Pleistocene - Holocene0.126 - 0.0USA (Utah) H. macrocephala (93326)