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Cervidae (deer)

Mammalia - Artiodactyla - Cervidae

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1758Cervus guineensis Linnaeus p. 68
1821Cervidae Gray
1850Cervidae Bonaparte p. 1
1876Cervus whitneyi Allen p. 49
1883Cervidae Flower p. 185
1889Cervidae Cope p. 877
1891Cervidae Flower and Lydekker p. 90
1908Cervidae Matthew p. 561
1910Cervidae Gregory p. 466
1921Sangamona Hay p. 91
1921Sangamona fugitiva Hay p. 91 figs. Plate 3, figs. 14-15
1934Cervidae Cook p. 157
1935Sangamona Schultz and Howard p. 287
1937Odocoileus whitneyi Frick
1980Cervidae Kurten and Anderson p. 309
1980Sangamona Kurten and Anderson p. 313
1980Sangamona fugitiva Kurten and Anderson p. 313
1981Cervidae Thurmond and Jones p. 190
1988Cervidae Carroll
1989Cervidae Shoshani et al. p. 436
1991Cervidae Nowak
2001Cervidae Sach and Heizmann p. 35
2003Cervidae Hassanin and Douzery
2008Cervidae Agnarsson and May-Collado p. 974 figs. Fig. 2
2009Cervidae Spaulding et al.
2014Cervidae Gonzalez et al. p. 483
2017Cervidae Cregut-Bonnoure and Tsoukala
2018Cervidae Eshelman et al. p. 9

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
RankNameAuthor
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
orderArtiodactyla()
Ruminantiamorpha
Ruminantia(Scopoli 1777)
Pecora()
familyCervidae
familyCervidae

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: terrestrialo
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: ground dwellingf
Diet: grazerf
Diet 2: browserf
Reproduction: viviparousf
Comments: life habit and diet based on Nowak 1999f
Created: 2005-06-08 10:11:09
Modified: 2005-09-22 12:03:17
Source: f = family, o = order, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Nowak 1991, Nowak 1999, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Late/Upper Eocene to the top of the Holocene or 37.20000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 33.9 Ma

Collections (1145 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Late/Upper Eocene37.2 - 33.9Mongolia Eumeryx sp. (73781)
Late/Upper Eocene37.2 - 33.9Antarctica (Seymour Island) Hippocamelus bisulcus, Pudu puda (182941)
Early/Lower Oligocene33.9 - 28.4Mongolia (Övörkhangai) Eumeryx culminis (180964 182116) Eumeryx imbellis (175171 180958) Eumeryx sp. (135793 182118 182119) Eumeryx sp., Eumeryx imbellis (182117)
Early/Lower Oligocene33.9 - 28.4China (Nei Mongol) Cervidae indet. (174915) Eumeryx culminis (174759) Eumeryx sp. (175386 175387)
Early/Lower Oligocene33.9 - 28.4Mongolia Eumeryx culminis (174754) Eumeryx sp. (75601)
Late/Upper Oligocene28.4 - 23.03China (Gansu) Eumeryx sp. (175388)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Germany Cervidae indet. (70338 70361 70362)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333Austria Euprox furcatus (63085)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333Ukraine Procervus variabilis (75853)
Neogene23.03 - 2.588USA (Michigan) Rangifer sp. (198005)
Neogene23.03 - 2.588Ukraine Cervidae indet. (184130) Procervus variabilis (75854)
Neogene23.03 - 2.588Italy Cervus sp. (96713)
Neogene23.03 - 2.588Taiwan (Miao-li) Cervus sp. (76858) Cervus taiouanus (76859)
Neogene23.03 - 2.588Taiwan (Tainan) Cervus sp. (76866 76867)
Neogene23.03 - 2.588Taiwan Cervus sp. (76857) Cervus taiouanus, Cervus sp. (76865)
Neogene23.03 - 2.588Taiwan (Taichung) Cervus taiouanus (76862)
Burdigalian20.44 - 15.97France (Maine-et-Loire) Procervulus dichotomus (48069)
Burdigalian20.44 - 15.97France (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) Cervidae indet. (37239)
Burdigalian20.44 - 15.97Portugal (Lisbon) Procervulus dichotomus (36628 36631)
Burdigalian20.44 - 15.97China (Jiangsu) Cervidae indet. (42067 43399)