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Platanistidae

Mammalia - Artiodactyla - Platanistidae

Taxonomy
Platanistina was named by Gray (1846). It is extant. It was considered monophyletic by Barnes and Reynolds (2009).

It was reranked as the family Platanistidae by Gray (1863), Gray (1866), Flower (1867), Gray (1868), Scammon and Cope (1869), Gill (1871), Gill (1872), Gill (1873), Flower (1883), Lydekker (1887), Ameghino (1889), Cope (1889), Cope (1890), Flower and Lydekker (1891), Zittel (1894), Ameghino (1894), Flores (1895), Longhi (1898), Trouessart (1898), Abel (1900), Hay (1902), Weber (1904), Trouessart (1904), Case (1904), True (1908), Turner (1912), Abel (1914), Stefani (1916), Miller (1923), Kellogg (1928), Weber (1928), Hay (1930), Slijper (1936), Simpson (1945), Ellerman and Morrisson-Scott (1951), Paula Couto (1956), Fraser and Purves (1960), Scheffer and Rice (1963), Kasuya (1973), Whitmore (1984), Muizon (1984), Pilleri (1985), Barnes et al. (1985), Muizon (1987), Pilleri (1988), Carroll (1988), Pilleri (1989), Muizon (1991), Nowak (1991), Benton (1993), Muizon (1994), Fordyce et al. (1995), McKenna and Bell (1997), Rice (1998), Fordyce and de Muizon (2001), Rice (2002), Barnes (2002), Geisler and Sanders (2003), Gingerich (2005), Mead and Brownell (2005), Lambert (2006), Hulbert and Whitmore (2006), Barnes (2006), Bianucci and Landini (2007), Lambert et al. (2008), Agnarsson and May-Collado (2008), Whitmore and Kaltenbach (2008), Uhen et al. (2008), Rice (2009), Barnes and Reynolds (2009), Geisler et al. (2011), Bianucci et al. (2013), Boersma and Pyenson (2016), Marx et al. (2016), Boersma et al. (2017), Godfrey et al. (2017), Berta (2017) and Aguirre-Fernández et al. (2017).

It was assigned to Delphinidae by Gray (1846); to Cete by Gray (1863); to Susoidea by Gray (1868); to Denticete by Gray (1866), Scammon and Cope (1869), Gill (1871) and Gill (1872); to Denticete by Gill (1873); to Odontoceta by Ameghino (1889) and Ameghino (1894); to Squaloceti by Abel (1914); to Odontocete by Hay (1902) and Hay (1930); to Cetacea by Longhi (1898) and Nowak (1991); to Odontoceti by Flower (1867), Flower (1883), Lydekker (1887), Cope (1889), Cope (1890), Flower and Lydekker (1891), Zittel (1894), Flores (1895), Trouessart (1898), Abel (1900), Weber (1904), Trouessart (1904), Case (1904), True (1908), Turner (1912), Stefani (1916), Miller (1923), Kellogg (1928), Weber (1928), Ellerman and Morrisson-Scott (1951), Scheffer and Rice (1963), Whitmore (1984), Pilleri (1985), Pilleri (1988), Carroll (1988), Pilleri (1989), Benton (1993) and Mead and Brownell (2005); to Odontoceti by Slijper (1936) and Hulbert and Whitmore (2006); and to Platanistoidea by Simpson (1945), Paula Couto (1956), Fraser and Purves (1960), Kasuya (1973), Muizon (1984), Barnes et al. (1985), Muizon (1987), Muizon (1991), Muizon (1994), Fordyce et al. (1995), McKenna and Bell (1997), Rice (1998), Fordyce and de Muizon (2001), Rice (2002), Barnes (2002), Geisler and Sanders (2003), Gingerich (2005), Lambert (2006), Barnes (2006), Bianucci and Landini (2007), Lambert et al. (2008), Agnarsson and May-Collado (2008), Whitmore and Kaltenbach (2008), Uhen et al. (2008), Rice (2009), Barnes and Reynolds (2009), Geisler et al. (2011), Bianucci et al. (2013), Boersma and Pyenson (2016), Marx et al. (2016), Boersma et al. (2017), Godfrey et al. (2017), Berta (2017) and Aguirre-Fernández et al. (2017).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1846Platanistina Gray p. 45
1863Platanistidae Gray p. 199
1866Platanistidae Gray p. 62
1867Platanistidae Flower p. 113
1868Platanistidae Gray p. 4
1869Platanistidae Scammon and Cope p. 20
1871Platanistidae Gill p. 123
1872Platanistidae Gill p. 95
1873Platanistidae Gill p. 27
1883Platanistidae Flower p. 184
1887Platanistidae Lydekker p. 73
1889Platanistidae Ameghino p. 884
1889Platanistidae Cope p. 876
1890Platanistidae Cope p. 603
1891Platanistidae Flower and Lydekker p. 89
1894Platanistidae Ameghino p. 438
1894Platanistidae Zittel p. 171
1895Platanistidae Flores p. 11
1898Platanistidae Longhi p. 329
1898Platanistidae Trouessart p. 1015
1900Platanistidae Abel p. 843
1902Platanistidae Hay p. 590
1904Platanistidae Case p. 8
1904Platanistidae Trouessart p. 756
1904Platanistidae Weber p. 579
1908Platanistidae True p. 391
1912Platanistidae Turner p. 94
1914Platanistidae Abel p. 221
1916Platanistidae Stefani p. 9
1923Platanistidae Miller p. 40
1928Platanistidae Kellogg p. 34 figs. Table 1
1928Platanistidae Weber p. 389
1930Platanistidae Hay p. 596
1936Platanistidae Slijper p. 546
1945Platanistidae Simpson p. 100
1951Platanistidae Ellerman and Morrisson-Scott p. 719
1956Platanistidae Paula Couto p. 98
1960Platanistidae Fraser and Purves p. 112 figs. Figure 26
1963Platanistidae Scheffer and Rice p. 5
1966Susuidae Hershkovitz p. 6
1973Platanistidae Kasuya p. 61
1984Platanistidae Muizon p. 68
1984Platanistidae Whitmore p. 230
1985Platanistidae Barnes et al. p. 25
1985Platanistidae Pilleri p. 61
1987Platanistidae Muizon p. 13
1988Platanistidae Carroll
1988Platanistidae Pilleri p. 7
1989Platanistidae Pilleri p. 121
1991Platanistidae Muizon p. 312
1991Platanistidae Nowak
1993Platanistidae Benton p. 762
1994Platanistidae Muizon p. 136
1995Platanistidae Fordyce et al. p. 379
1997Platanistidae McKenna and Bell p. 383
1997Tachyrgrhynchus Odreman-Rivas p. 241
1998Platanistidae Rice
2001Platanistidae Fordyce and de Muizon p. 178
2002Platanistidae Barnes p. 409
2002Platanistidae Rice p. 231 figs. Table 1
2003Platanistidae Geisler and Sanders p. 28
2005Platanistidae Gingerich p. 237 figs. Table 15.1
2005Platanistidae Mead and Brownell p. 738
2006Platanistidae Barnes p. 32
2006Platanistidae Hulbert and Whitmore p. 19
2006Platanistidae Lambert p. 70
2007Platanistidae Bianucci and Landini p. 45 figs. Table 2.1
2008Platanistidae Agnarsson and May-Collado p. 981
2008Platanistidae Lambert et al. p. 161
2008Platanistidae Uhen et al. p. 580
2008Platanistidae Whitmore and Kaltenbach p. 192
2009Platanistidae Barnes and Reynolds p. 487
2009Platanistidae Rice p. 235 figs. Table 1
2011Platanistidae Geisler et al. p. 29 figs. Figure 5
2013Platanistidae Bianucci et al. p. 741
2016Platanistidae Boersma and Pyenson p. 12 figs. Figure 10
2016Platanistidae Marx et al. p. 120 figs. Figure 4.25
2017Platanistidae Aguirre-Fernández et al.
2017Platanistidae Berta p. 163
2017Platanistidae Boersma et al.
2017Platanistidae Godfrey et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
RankNameAuthor
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
orderArtiodactyla()
Cetacea()
Pelagiceti
Neoceti
suborderOdontoceti
superfamilyPlatanistoidea
familyPlatanistidae()
familyPlatanistidae()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
S. J. Godfrey et al. 2017Odontocetes differing from the closely related Squalodelphinidae (named genera include Huaridelphis, Medocinia, Notocetus, Phocageneus, and Squalodelphis) in the following apomorphies: more than 33 teeth per upper or lower row; deep lateral groove on mandible; and frontal and maxilla contribute thin sharp edge to form posterior margin of antorbital notch. Platanistids are further characterized by the following combination of characters: mesorostral groove closed over dorsally by a meeting of the premaxillae at the sagittal plane; premaxillae and maxillae both reaching the anterior rostral extremity; distal ends of premaxilla and maxilla fused at the rostral extremity; asymmetrical left-skewed cranial vertex; frontals exposed between presphenoid/cribriform plate and nasals on posterior wall of dorsal naris; diminutive nasals; posterior ends of premaxillae much expanded posterolaterally; posterior dorsal infraorbital (maxillary) foramina located far posteriorly, with right foramen being located very close to posterior termination of right premaxilla (positioned at the posterior margin of the pre- maxilla, and in some taxa overhung by the margin of that bone), and left posterior dorsal infraorbital foramen being near the pos- terior termination of the left premaxilla; maxilla within the supraorbital process thickened dorsoventrally; bony sheath present in the medial part of the orbit formed by combination of the lateral lamina of the pterygoid (formed as an outer lamina or bony plate of the pterygoid within the orbit that extends posteriorly from the palate and contacts the falciform process of the squamosal) and a posterior extension of the palatine; zygomatic process of squamosal flattened transversely (concave medially convex laterally) and expanded dorsoventrally, the anterodorsal end of which is in close proximity to (or may abut) the postorbital process of the frontal; periotic with a relatively small and rounded cochlear portion, a long anterior process that is separated from the body of the periotic by a constriction, a lateral process, and peg present on ridge on articular process of periotic; tympanic bulla with a thin outer lip that is smoothly overarching and high relative to the transverse width of the bulla; symphyseal portion of mandible narrow, anteroposteriorly elongated, and firmly ankylosed; anterior teeth not procumbent; and all teeth single-rooted.