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Hipparion

Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Equidae

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1832Hipparion de Christol
1847Hipparitherium Christol
1860Hipparion venustum Leidy p. 105
1860Hippotherium venustum Leidy p. 105
1869Hipparion venustum Leidy
1877Hipparion venustum Leidy p. 212
1889Hippotherium venustum Cope p. 448
1896Hipparion venustum Roger
1897Hipparion sitifense Pomel
1898Hipparion venustum Trouessart
1902Hipparion venustum Hay
1905Neohipparion venustum Trouessart
1907Hipparion Gidley p. 867
1918Hipparion venustum Osborn p. 200 figs. Text Fig. 165
1924Hipparion venustum Matthew
1927Proboscidipparion Sefve
1930Hipparion venustum Hay
1932Stylohipparion van Hoepen
1940Hipparion Stirton p. 184
1940Nannippus venustus Stirton p. 186
1941Hemihipparion Wehrli
1955Hipparion Quinn p. 63
1981Hipparion Thurmond and Jones p. 184
1988Hipparion Carroll
1988Stylohipparion Carroll
1989Hipparion Prothero and Schoch p. 532
1989Stylohipparion Prothero and Schoch p. 532
1995Hipparion Kelly p. 26
1998Hipparion MacFadden p. 548
2003Hipparion Theodorou et al.
2011Hipparion Boessenecker p. 2

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
RankNameAuthor
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
orderPerissodactyla()
suborderLophodontomorpha
infraorderEuperissodactyla
Hippomorpha
superfamilyEquoidea
familyEquidae
subfamilyEquinaeSteinmann and Döderlein 1890
tribeHipparionini
genusHipparionde Christol 1832

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: ground dwellingsubf
Diet: browserg
Comments: browser based on stable isotopes (MacFadden and Cerling 1996)g
Created: 2009-01-04 10:28:06
Modified: 2009-01-04 12:28:06
Source: g = genus, subf = subfamily, subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009, Ji et al. 2002, Nowak 1991, MacFadden and Cerling 1996, MacFadden 1998

Age range: base of the Serravallian to the top of the Middle Pleistocene or 13.82000 to 0.12600 Ma

Collections (512 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Miocene23.03 - 5.333Uganda H. macrodon (22358 22360 22445) H. sp. (22359) H. sp., H. macrodon (22362)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333Kazakhstan (Kalba) H. sp. (13481)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333USA (South Dakota) H. tehonense (18081)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333USA (California) H. forcei (19466) H. mohavense (19439) H. sp. (19442 19443) H. tehonense (19570) Merychippus sumani (19440)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333Germany H. sp. (22681)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333USA (Nevada) H. tehonense (18858) Nannippus tehonensis (18857 18859 18860)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333USA (Florida) H. tehonense (18533)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333USA (Texas) H. shirleyi (18675)
Miocene - Pliocene23.03 - 2.588Ethiopia H. sp. (22171)
Miocene - Pliocene23.03 - 2.588Kazakhstan H. sp. (76282)

Youngest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state PBDB collection number
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Azerbaijan (Apsheronian Penninsula) H. sp., H. crassum (56730)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Tanzania H. ethiopicum (21974)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117South Africa H. lybicum (21828)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Eritrea (Afar Depression) H. sp. (22488)
Pleistocene - Holocene2.588 - 0.0Ethiopia H. sp. (22156 22177)
Calabrian1.806 - 0.781Kenya (Rift Valley) H. ethiopicum (21294 21343)
Calabrian1.806 - 0.781Kenya H. ethiopicum (21368 21402 21455 21468 21514) H. sp. (21833)
Calabrian1.806 - 0.781Tanzania H. ethiopicum (21968 21970 21971 21972 22041 22064 22337 22467 22620)
Middle Pleistocene0.781 - 0.126Spain (La Rioja) H. sp. (189976)
Middle Pleistocene - Late/Upper Pleistocene0.781 - 0.0117Tanzania H. sp. (21893)