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Borophagus secundus

Mammalia - Carnivora - Canidae

Taxonomy
Borophagus secundus was named by VanderHoof (1931) [named as subspecies of Aelurodon saevus by Matthew and Cook 1909; raised to species level].

It was recombined as Osteoborus secundus by Stirton and VanderHoof (1933), VanderHoof and Gregory (1940), Skinner et al. (1977), Richey (1979) and Munthe (1998).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1924Hyaenognathus direptor Matthew
1928Hyaenognathus cyonoides Martin p. 235
1930Borophagus cyonoides Matthew and Stirton
1931Borophagus cyonoides VanderHoof
1931Borophagus secundus VanderHoof
1932Borophagus cyonoides Reed and Longenecker
1933Osteoborus cyonoides Stirton and VanderHoof p. 177
1933Osteoborus direptor Stirton and VanderHoof p. 177
1933Osteoborus secundus Stirton and VanderHoof p. 178
1935Borophagus cyonoides Bode
1936Osteoborus cyonoides Hesse
1937Osteoborus cyonoides Johnston
1939Osteoborus cyonoides Johnston
1940Osteoborus secundus VanderHoof and Gregory
1941Osteoborus cyonoides Stirton
1944Osteoborus cyonoides McGrew
1948Osteoborus cyonoides Macdonald
1969Osteoborus cyonoides Dalquest
1977Osteoborus secundus Skinner et al.
1979Osteoborus cyonoides Bennett
1979Osteoborus cyonoides Richey
1979Osteoborus direptor Richey
1979Osteoborus secundus Richey
1980Osteoborus cyonoides Dalquest and Mooser p. 3
1980Borophagus direptor Kurten and Anderson p. 165
1983Osteoborus cyonoides Harrison
1984Osteoborus cyonoides Webb and Perrigo
1990Osteoborus cyonoides Schultz
1998Osteoborus cyonoides Miller and Carranza-Castaneda
1998Osteoborus cyonoides Munthe
1998Osteoborus secundus Munthe
1999Borophagus secundus Wang et al.
2016Borophagus secundus Tseng and Geisler p. 2 figs. Table 1

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
OlfactoresJefferies 1991
subphylumVertebrata
Gnathostomata()
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
RankNameAuthor
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
Laurasiatheria
Scrotifera
Ferae()
CarnivoramorphaWyss and Flynn 1993
CarnivoraformesFlynn et al.
orderCarnivoraBowditch 1821
suborderCaniformiaKretzoi 1943
superfamilyCanoideaSimpson 1931
familyCanidaeFischer 1817
subfamilyBorophaginaeSimpson 1945
tribeBorophaginiSimpson 1945
subtribeBorophagina
genusBorophagusCope 1892
speciessecundus

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
R. A. Stirton and V. L. VanderHoof 1933Very closely related to O. cyonoides; p1 apparently more frequently present in secundus than in O. cyonoides. A series from Snake Creek may show that p1 is predominantly present and this possibility is sufficiently great to warrant the maintenance of O. secundus as a species. p2 has two roots; p3 is not so narrow nor so long-crowned as O. cyonoides, neither is it wider posteriorly than anteriorly.
R. A. Stirton and V. L. VanderHoof 1933 (Osteoborus cyonoides)Rostrum short, frontals abruptly elevated from level of nasals; frontals extremely convex both antero-posteriorly and laterally; zygomatic arches wide; palate short and wide; P1-3 with very low median cusps; p2 with double or single roots and vestigial anterior and posterior cusps in some individuals; P3 with widely separated roots; crown of P3 elongate and narrow, seldom high; talon of M1 not as wide as in O. littoralis; horizontal ramus deflected outwardly below p4 giving tooth row a curved alignment; p1 present in only one specimen from Coffee Ranch, alveolus shallow, root single; p3 with separate roots, or one grooved root, or one round root, low median cusps on p2; p3 with two roots; p3 usually wider posteriorly than anteriorly, with a low to moderately high median cusp and a vestigial posterior cusp.
R. A. Stirton and V. L. VanderHoof 1933 (Osteoborus direptor)Horizontal ramus deflected outwardly below p4 giving tooth row a curved alignment; p1 absent; p2 with one root; p3 with a distinct external goove in its single root.