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Canis dirus (dire wolf)

Mammalia - Carnivora - Canidae

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1858Canis dirus Leidy
1869Canis indianensis Leidy
1876Canis mississippiensis Allen p. 49
1903Canis indianensis Merriam p. 288 figs. Pl. 30, Fig. 2
1916Canis ayersi Sellards
1918Aenocyon ayersi Merriam
1918Aenocyon dirus Merriam
1929Canis ayersi Simpson
1931Canis dirus Elftman p. 5
1940Canis dirus Olson p. 42
1940Canis ayersi Olson p. 44
1946Canis dirus Stock and et al.
1949Aenocyon dirus Hibbard
1960Aenocyon dirus Hibbard and Taylor
1966Canis dirus Slaughter p. 481
1972Canis dirus Kurten and Anderson
1972Canis dirus Lundelius, Jr.
1974Canis dirus Martin
1979Canis dirus Nowak
1980Canis dirus Kurten and Anderson p. 171
1984Canis dirus Kurten
1988Canis dirus Berta
2009Canis dirus Tedford et al. p. 144 figs. 40, 43, 44, 56A–F; appendices 2, 3

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
RankNameAuthor
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
Laurasiatheria
Scrotifera
Ferae()
CarnivoramorphaWyss and Flynn 1993
CarnivoraformesFlynn et al.
orderCarnivoraBowditch 1821
suborderCaniformiaKretzoi 1943
superfamilyCanoideaSimpson 1931
familyCanidaeFischer 1817
subfamilyCaninaeGill 1872
tribeCaniniFischer de Waldheim 1817
subtribeCanina()
genusCanis
speciesdirus

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
R. H. Tedford et al. 2009Canis dirus is distin- guished by a number of autapomorphies related to hypercarnivory: loss of m2 ante- rolabial cingulum; wide palate; greatly re- duced m1–m2 metaconids and entoconids; greatly reduced M1–M2 hypocones; very weak or discontinuous anterolingual cingu- lum across M1 protocone. It shares with C. armbrusteri two synapomorphies: short and little recurved canine, and a reduced P4 protocone. With C. lupus it shares four additional synapomorphies: paroccipital pro- cess strongly expanded posteriorly; frontal sinus reaching the frontoparietal suture; long incisive foramina that extend to or behind canine alveoli; M1 parastyle very weak, preparacrista directed anteriorly, not to parastyle.
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: ground dwellingf
Diet: carnivoref
Diet 2: omnivoref
Created: 2005-06-08 10:11:09
Modified: 2005-08-22 19:28:06
Source: f = family, subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Nowak 1991, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009, Ji et al. 2002

Age range: base of the Irvingtonian to the top of the Rancholabrean or 1.80000 to 0.01200 Ma

Collections (68 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Bolivia (Tarija) Canis dirus (70673)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117USA (Tennessee) Aenocyon ayersi (74240)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117USA (Texas) Canis dirus (93257)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117USA (South Carolina) Canis dirus (65405)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Florida) Canis dirus (20520)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (South Dakota) Canis dirus (20503)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Nebraska) Canis dirus (20138 20347 20376 20501)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Kansas) Aenocyon dirus (20295) Canis dirus (20166)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (California) Canis armbrusteri (20327) Canis dirus (20387)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3Mexico (Aguascalientes) Canis dirus (20283)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3Mexico (Jalisco) Canis dirus (20285)
Irvingtonian - Rancholabrean1.8 - 0.012USA (Florida) Canis dirus (20419)
Rancholabrean0.3 - 0.012Mexico (Sonora) Canis dirus (20495)
Rancholabrean (glacial)0.3 - 0.012USA (California) Canis dirus (20624)
Rancholabrean0.3 - 0.012USA (South Carolina) Canis dirus (79757 79918)
Rancholabrean0.3 - 0.012USA (Florida) Canis dirus (20398 20491)
Rancholabrean0.3 - 0.012USA (California) Canis dirus (85314 150336)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (late glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Wyoming) Canis sp. (93181)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (late glacial)0.126 - 0.0117Mexico (San Luis Potosi) Canis dirus (71277)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Idaho) Canis dirus (20569)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (California) Canis dirus (20628 20642)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (high glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Texas) Aenocyon dirus (93103)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Peru Canis sp. (71346)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Canis dirus (20572 20573 20580 20594 20636)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Virginia) Canis dirus (103991 104758)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Canis ayersi (154771)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Aenocyon ayersi (74292 154910) Canis ayersi (34269) Canis dirus (20638 154804 154805)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Texas) Canis dirus (79683)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (West Virginia) Canis dirus (93332)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Peru (Piura) Canis dirus (144976)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Kentucky) Canis dirus (74141)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (high glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (New Mexico) Canis dirus (76059)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (California) Canis indianensis (155393)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (high glacial)0.126 - 0.0117Venezuela (Zulia) Canis dirus (63515)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Missouri) Canis dirus (93379)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Arizona) Canis dirus (20619)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Oregon) Canis dirus (93251)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (late glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Canis dirus (154722)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (late glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Missouri) Canis dirus (75995)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Utah) Canis dirus (20641)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (California) Aenocyon dirus (79630) Canis dirus (20273 20639 73752 155409)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Indiana) Canis dirus (20600)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Mexico (Nuevo Leon) Canis dirus (71345)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Pennsylvania) Canis dirus (104797)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (late glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Texas) Aenocyon dirus (79581)