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Trinucleida

Trilobita - Trinucleida

Taxonomy
Trinucleina was named by Swinnerton (1915). It is not extant.

It was reranked as the order Trinucleida by Bignon et al. (2020).

It was assigned to Ptychopariida by Harrington and Leanza (1957); and to Libristoma by Bignon et al. (2020).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1915Trinucleina Swinnerton
1957Trinucleina Harrington and Leanza
2020Trinucleida Bignon et al. p. 1072

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Protostomia
Ecdysozoa
Panarthropoda
RankNameAuthor
phylumArthropodaLatreille 1829
subphylumArtiopoda(Hou and Bergstrom)
classTrilobitaWalch 1771
subclassLibristoma
orderTrinucleida(Swinnerton 1915)
orderTrinucleida(Swinnerton 1915)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Or. †Trinucleida Swinnerton 1915
show all | hide all
Fm. †Alsataspididae Turner 1940
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G. †Araiopleura Harrington and Leanza 1957
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Araiopleura reticulata Harrington and Leanza 1957
Araiopleura stephani Rushton 1982
G. †Clavatellus Poletaeva 1955
G. †Falanaspis Tjernvik 1956
+
Falanaspis aliena Tjernvik 1956
Falanaspis extensa Fortey 1975
G. †Gaoloupingia Yuan and Yin 1998
+
Gaoloupingia gaoloupingensis Yuan and Yin 1998
Gaoloupingia triangularis Yuan and Yin 1998
G. †Jegorovaia Lu 1964
+
Jegorovaia convexa Lu and Chien 1974
Jegorovaia expansa Lu 1964
Invalid names: Hermosella Lu and Chien 1978 [synonym]
G. †Joshuaspis Choi et al. 2008
+
Joshuaspis parvus Choi et al. 2008
G. †Macharia Choi et al. 2008
+
Macharia pengi Choi et al. 2008
G. †Orometopus Broegger 1898
+
Orometopus notatifrons Harrington and Leanza 1957
G. †Pagometopus Henningsmoen 1959
G. †Palquiella Suárez-Soruco 1975
G. †Rhadinopleura Harrington and Leanza 1957
+
Rhadinopleura eurycephala Harrington and Leanza 1957
G. †Seleneceme Clark 1924
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Invalid names: Alsataspis Turner 1940 [synonym]
G. †Skljarella Petrunina 1973
+
Skljarella cracens Fortey and Owens 1991
Skljarella expansa Bao and Jago 2000
Skljarella hunanensis Peng 1984
Skljarella sulcifera Peng 1992
G. †Spirantyx Whittard 1961
G. †Torifera Wolfart 1974
+
Torifera abrupta Peng et al. 2004
Torifera jelli Peng et al. 2009
Torifera paraconvexa Yang 1978
Torifera taoyuanensis Peng 1987
Torifera tuma Yang 1977
Invalid names: Xiangia Peng 1987 [synonym]
G. †Yumenaspis Chang 1960
G. †Zacompsus Raymond 1924
+
Zacompsus levisensis Rasetti 1944
Invalid names: Hapalopleuridae Harrington and Leanza 1957 [invalid subgroup], Jegorovaiidae [invalid subgroup], Orometopidae Hupe 1955 [invalid subgroup]
Fm. †Dionididae Gürich 1907
+
G. †Aethedionide Zhou and Ju 1983
G. †Digrypos Kobayashi 1940
G. †Dionide Barrande 1847
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Dionide formosa Barrande 1846
Dionide holdeni Raymond 1925
+
Invalid names: Dionide contrita Raymond 1920 [synonym]
Dionide jubata Raymond 1925
Dionide magnifica Owen and Bruton 1980
Dionide mareki Henry and Romano 1978
Dionide prima Kloucek 1917
Dionide semicircula Owen 1981
Invalid names: Dionidepyga Snajdr 1981 [synonym]
G. †Dionidella Prantl and Pribyl 1950
+
Subg. †Dionidella (Huangnigangia) Han and Ju 1983
Dionidella incisa Prantl and Přibyl 1949
+
Invalid names: Dionidella (Huangnigangia) subquadrata Han and Ju 1983 [synonym]
Dionidella venusta Zhou et al. 2014
G. †Tongxinaspis Zhou 1981
G. †Trinucleoides Raymond 1917
Fm. †Liostracinidae Raymond 1937
+
G. †Aplexura Rozova 1963
+
Aplexura pulchella Rozova 1963
G. †Doremataspis Opik 1967
G. †Liostracina Monke 1903
+
Liostracina bella Lin et al. 1983
Liostracina bilimbata Zhang 1983
Liostracina krausei Monke 1903
Liostracina tangwangzhaiensis Park et al. 2014
G. †Lynaspis Opik 1967
Fm. †Raphiophoridae Angelin 1854
+
G. †Ampyxina Ullrich 1922
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Ampyxina bellatula Savage 1917
Ampyxina lanceola Whittington 1959
Ampyxina powelli Raymond 1920
+
Invalid names: Ampyxina scarabeus Butts 1941 [synonym]
G. †Ellsaspis Rasetti 1945
Subfm. †Endymioniinae Raymond 1920
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G. †Anisonotella Whittington 1965
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Anisonotella glacialis Billings 1865
Invalid names: Anisonotus Raymond 1920 [replaced]
G. †Carinocranium Dean 1989
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G. †Endymionia Billings 1865
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Endymionia clavaria Fortey 1975
Endymionia meeki Billings 1862
Endymionia raymondi Whittington 1965
Endymionia schucherti Raymond 1920
Endymionia semielliptica Chang and Fan 1960
+
Invalid names: Endymionia circularis Zhang 1981 [synonym], Endymionia nodosa Zhang 1981 [synonym], Endymionia ordosensis Lu in Lu et al 1976 [synonym]
Invalid names: Endymion Billings 1862 [replaced]
G. †Lehnertia Vaccari et al. 2006
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Lehnertia nawisapa Vaccari et al. 2006
G. †Pytine Fortey 1975
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Pytine brevicauda Wiman 1905
Pytine graia Fortey 1975
G. †Salteria Thomson 1864
+
Salteria primaeva Wyville Thomson 1864
+
Invalid names: Salteria americana Cooper 1953 [synonym]
Invalid names: Erinnys Salter 1865 [replaced]
G. †Kanlingia Zhang 1981
+
Kanlingia kalpinensis Zhang 1981
G. †Lonchodomas Angelin 1854
+
Subg. †Lonchodomas (Foliopyge) Perfiliev and Levitsky 1963
Lonchodomas carinatus Cooper 1953
Lonchodomas clavulus Whittington 1965
Lonchodomas depressus Brogger 1887
Lonchodomas halli Billings 1861
Lonchodomas normalis Billings 1865
Lonchodomas pennatus Latouche 1884
Lonchodomas politus Raymond 1925
Lonchodomas portlocki Barrande 1846
Lonchodomas punctatus Cooper 1953
Lonchodomas retrolatus Ross and Barnes 1967
Lonchodomas rostratus Sars 1835
Lonchodomas sublaevis Raymond 1925
Lonchodomas suriensis Harrington and Leanza 1957
Lonchodomas tenuis Nielsen 1995
Lonchodomas tumidus Forbes 1849
Lonchodomas volborthi Schmidt 1894
Lonchodomas yohi Sun 1931
G. †Malinaspis Andreeva 1985
G. †Malongullia Webby and Moors 1970
+
Invalid names: Ampyxinops Zhang 1979 [synonym]
G. †Nambeetella Legg 1976
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Nambeetella embolion Fortey and Shergold 1984
G. †Nanshanaspis Zhang and Fan 1960
+
Nanshanaspis levis Chang and Fan 1960
Nanshanaspis rotundata Zhang 1988
Invalid names: Caganaspis Kolobova 1968 [synonym], Kongqiaoheia Zhang 1988 [synonym]
G. †Pseudampyxina Ju 1983
G. †Raphioampyx Baldis and Baldis 1995
Subfm. †Raphiophorinae Angelin 1854
+
G. †Ampyx Dalman 1827
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Subg. †Ampyx (Parampyx) Zhang 1981
Ampyx abnormalis Yi 1957
Ampyx americanus Safford and Vogdes 1889
Ampyx binodulosus Reed 1896
Ampyx camurus Raymond 1925
Ampyx compactus Ross and Barnes 1967
Ampyx delicatulus Fortey 1975
Ampyx foveolatus Angelin 1854
Ampyx laeviusculus Billings 1865
Ampyx lobatus Cooper 1953
Ampyx nasutus Dalman 1827
Ampyx porcus Fortey 1975
Ampyx priscus Thoral 1935
Ampyx punctolineatus Zhou and Fortey 1986
Ampyx spongiosus Fortey 1975
Ampyx toxotis Fortey 1975
Ampyx virginiensis Cooper 1953
Ampyx walcotti Kobayashi 1955
Invalid names: Brachyampyx Forbes 1849 [objective synonym]
G. †Ampyxella Dean 1960
+
Ampyxella aculeata Angelin 1854
G. †Ampyxinella Korleva 1959
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Ampyxinella rotundata Zhang 1979
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Invalid names: Ampyxinella circulare Zhang 1981 [synonym], Ampyxinella ovata Zhang 1979 [synonym]
G. †Ampyxoides Whittington 1965
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Ampyxoides inermis Fortey 1975
Ampyxoides semicostatus Billings 1865
G. †Bulbaspis Chugaeva 1956
G. †Cnemidopyge Whittard 1955
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Cnemidopyge bisecta Elles 1940
Cnemidopyge costata Boeck 1838
Cnemidopyge nuda Murchison 1839
+
Cnemidopyge nuda granulata Whittard 1955
Invalid names: Ampyx latus M'Coy 1851 [synonym]
Cnemidopyge parva Hughes 1969
Cnemidopyge tenuis Kennedy 1988
G. †Damghanampyx Ghobadi Pour et al. 2007
+
Damghanampyx ginteri Ghobadi Pour et al. 2007
G. †Edmundsonia Cooper 1953
+
Edmundsonia typa Cooper 1953
G. †Globampyx Fortey 1975
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Globampyx popovkiensis Balashova 1966
Globampyx sexsegmentatus Fortey et al. 2024
Globampyx sinalae Norford and Ross 1978
Globampyx trinucleoides Fortey 1975
G. †Mendolaspis Rusconi 1951
+
Mendolaspis doidyx Fortey 1975
Mendolaspis paradoidyx Zhang 1981
Mendolaspis salagastensis Rusconi 1951
G. †Miaopopsis Lu 1965
G. †Raphiophorus Angelin 1854
+
Raphiophorus lamasi Harrington and Leanza 1957
G. †Rhombampyx Fortey 1975
+
Rhombampyx chinensis Weller 1913
Rhombampyx glaber Poulsen 1965
Rhombampyx rhombos Fortey 1975
Rhombampyx tragula Fortey 1975
Rhombampyx yii Lu 1965
G. †Raymondella Reed 1935
+
Raymondella elegans Cooper 1953
Raymondella macconochiei Nicholson and Etheridge 1879
Raymondella nevadensis Ross and Shaw 1972
Invalid names: Reedaspis Prantl and Pribyl 1949 [objective synonym]
G. †Sinampyxina Sheng 1974
G. †Taklamakania Zhang 1980
+
+
Invalid names: Ampyx (Parampyx) nanjiangensis Zhang 1981 [synonym]
Invalid names: Xinjiangia Zhang 1981 [synonym]
Fm. †Trinucleidae Hawle and Corda 1847
+
G. †Anebolithus Huges and Wright 1970
G. †Auritolithus Holloway et al. 2022
G. †Bergamia Whittard 1955
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Invalid names: Bohemaspis Horbringer 1986 [synonym], Brandysops Horbringer 1986 [synonym], Cochliorrhoe Whittard 1966 [synonym]
G. †Bettonolithus Morris 1988
+
Invalid names: Bettonia Whittard 1956 [replaced]
G. †Botrioides Stetson 1927
G. †Costonia Whittard 1956
Subfm. †Cryptolithinae Angelin 1854
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G. †Broeggerolithus Lamont 1935
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Broeggerolithus broeggeri Bancroft 1929
Broeggerolithus discors Angelin 1854
Invalid names: Ulricholithus Bancroft 1949 [synonym]
G. †Cryptolithoides Whittington 1941
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Cryptolithoides reticulatus Ross and Shaw 1972
Cryptolithoides ulrichi Whittington 1941
G. †Cryptolithus Green 1832
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Cryptolithus recurvus Ulrich 1919
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Invalid names: Cryptolithus lorettensis Foerste 1924 [synonym], Trinucleus bellulus Ulrich 1879 [synonym]
G. †Deanaspis Hughes et al. 1975
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Deanaspis goldfussii Barrande 1846
Deanaspis goldfussii senftenbergii Hawle and Corda 1847
Deanaspis seftenbergii Hawle and Corda 1847
G. †Decordinaspis Harper and Romano 1967
G. †Eirelithus Lamont 1941
G. †Famatinolithus Harrington and Leanza 1957
+
Famatinolithus noticus Harrington and Leanza 1957
G. †Furcalithus Fortey and Owens 1987
G. †Guandacolithus Harrington and Leanza 1957
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Guandacolithus furquei Harrington and Leanza 1957
G. †Gymnostomix Fortey and Owens 1987
G. †Hanchungolithus Lu 1956
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Invalid names: Ichangolithus Lu 1963 [synonym]
G. †Incaia Whittard 1955
G. †Jianxilithus Zhang and Zhou 1876
G. †Lloydolithus Bancroft 1933
G. †Lordshillia Whittard 1966
G. †Marekolithus Shaw 1995
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G. †Marrolithoides Williams 1948
G. †Marrolithus Bancroft 1929
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G. †Myinda Stubblefield and Bulman 1927
G. †Myindella Hutchison and Ingham 1962
G. †Myttonia Whittard 1955
G. †Nankinolithus Lu 1957
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Nankinolithus granulatus Wahlenberg 1818
G. †Ningkianolithus Lu 1954
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Invalid names: Ceratolithus Lu 1959 [synonym]
G. †Novaspis Whittington 1941
G. †Onnia Bancroft 1933
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Onnia goldfussi Barrande 1846
G. †Paratretaspis Dean 1973
G. †Paratrinucleus Whittington 1941
G. †Parkesolithus Campbell and Durham 1970
G. †Protolloydolithus Williams 1948
+
G. †Reedolithus Bancroft 1929
G. †Reuscholithus Bancroft 1929
G. †Salterolithus Bancroft 1929
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Invalid names: Smeathenia Dean 1960 [synonym]
G. †Stapeleyella Whittard 1955
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Stapeleyella inconstans Whittard 1955
G. †Telaeomarrolithus Williams 1948
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Invalid names: Fimbriomarrolithus Williams 1948 [objective synonym]
Subfm. †Trinucleinae Hawle and Corda 1847
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G. †Iputaspis McCobb and Popov 2017
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Iputaspis stepnyakensis McCobb and Popov 2017
G. †Kimakaspis Ghobadi Pour et al. 2011
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Kimakaspis kovalevskyi Ghobadi Pour et al. 2011
G. †Tretaspis M'Coy 1849
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Tretaspis anderssoni Stormer 1945
Tretaspis askerensis Owen 1980
Tretaspis ceriodes Angelin 1854
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Tretaspis hadelandica Stormer 1945
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Tretaspis hisingeri Owen 1980
Tretaspis kiaeri Stormer 1930
Tretaspis latilimba Linnarsson 1869
Tretaspis reticulata Ruedemann 1901
Tretaspis sagenosus Whittington 1959
Tretaspis seticornis Hisinger 1840
+
Tretaspis sortita Reed 1935
G. †Trinucleus Murchison 1839
+
Trinucleus acervulosus Raymond 1920
+
Invalid names: Trinucleus acervulosus Raymond 1925 [synonym]
Trinucleus conollyi Fortey 2006
Trinucleus seticornis Hisinger 1840
Invalid names: Edgellia Shaw 1950 [objective synonym]
G. †Whittardolithus Hughes and Addison 1975
G. †Xiushuilithus Zhou 1976
G. †Yinpanolithus Lu and Chang 1974
Invalid names: Hanchungolithinae Lu 1963 [empty], Marrolithinae Hughes 1971 [empty], Microdiscus [nomen vanum], Tretaspidinae Whittington 1941 [empty]
Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
A. Bignon et al. 2020Usually small ovoid-globular (commutavi) protaspides. Short eyes, when present, con- nected to glabella by eyeridge without palpebral lobe. A long (sag.) glabella compared to its maximal width (tr.). Three or fewer short glabellar furrows. Tubercle on gla- bella or occipital ring. Free cheeks anteriorly fused. Facial sutures are marginal or dorsal. Perforated fringe present in more derived forms. Genal spines long and narrow at base. Distal extremities of thoracic segments pointed. Pygidium triangular or semi-circular, smaller than cephalon, wider (tr.) than long (sag.), with a curved anterior border. Pygidial axis narrow, may extend onto posterior border.
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: low Mg calcitec
Composition 2: chitinc
Ontogeny: molting, addition of partsc
Environment: marinec
Locomotion: fast-movingc
Life habit: low-level epifaunalc
Diet: carnivorec
Created: 2004-02-29 09:07:31
Modified: 2016-06-02 12:44:28
Source: c = class
Reference: Aberhan et al. 2004

Age range: base of the Guzhangian to the top of the Pridoli or 500.50000 to 419.20000 Ma

Collections (1441 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Middle Cambrian509.0 - 497.0China Liostracina tangwangzhaiensis (228206)
Middle Cambrian509.0 - 497.0India Torifera jelli (114635 114663 114665)
Middle Cambrian509.0 - 497.0Canada (New Brunswick) Microdiscus punctatus (64535)
Mayan504.5 - 499.5Russian Federation (Gorniy Altay Republic) Aplexura sp. (10175)
Guzhangian500.5 - 497.0China (Jiangsu) Liostracina bella (127375 127377 127378 127381) Liostracina krausei (129925 129926)
Guzhangian500.5 - 497.0China (Hunan) Gaoloupingia gaoloupingensis (128351) Gaoloupingia gaoloupingensis, Torifera taoyuanensis (126328) Gaoloupingia gaoloupingensis, Torifera tuma, Liostracina bella (49184) Liostracina bella (49185 49186 49190 107050 126329 126346 126348 126442 126444) Liostracina taoyuanensis, Liostracina bella (128933) Torifera abrupta (126440) Torifera abrupta, Liostracina bella (126439) Torifera taoyuanensis (126313 126317 126318 126323) Torifera taoyuanensis, Torifera tuma (126324) Torifera tuma (49176 49177 126287 126303 126304 126305 126306) Torifera tuma, Liostracina bella (49182) Xiangia taoyuanensis (128930)
Guzhangian500.5 - 497.0China (Guizhou) Gaoloupingia gaoloupingensis (125073) Gaoloupingia gaoloupingensis, Gaoloupingia triangularis (125072)
Guzhangian500.5 - 497.0China (Henan) Liostracina krausei (129208)
Guzhangian500.5 - 497.0South Korea Liostracina bilimbata (152614 152627 152633 152635 152636 152637)
Guzhangian500.5 - 497.0China (Hebei) Liostracina krausei (129589)

Youngest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state PBDB collection number
Aeronian440.8 - 438.5United Kingdom (England) Ampyx sp. (454) Raphiophorus aloniensis (50285)
Sheinwoodian433.4 - 430.5United Kingdom (England) Raphiophorus parvulus (23091)
Wenlock433.4 - 427.4USA (Arkansas) Raphiophorus niagarensis (26020)
Homerian430.5 - 427.4Czech Republic Raphiophorus roualti (14028 14050 14103) Raphiophorus sp. (14102)
Gorstian427.4 - 425.6Algeria Raphiophorus rouaulti (27153)
Gorstian - Ludfordian427.4 - 423.0Czech Republic Raphiophorus roualti (14127)
Ludlow427.4 - 423.0Morocco Raphiophorus roualti (27029) Raphiophorus rouaulti (27053)
Ludlow427.4 - 423.0United Kingdom (England) Raphiophorus sp. (482)
Ludfordian425.6 - 423.0Austria Raphiophorus roualti (13908)
Pridoli423.0 - 419.2Italy (Sardinia) Ampyx ouralti (26173) Raphiophorus sp. (26187)