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Monocots

Angiospermae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
2008Monocots Taylor et al. p. 1029
2016Monocots The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomPlantae
phylumSpermatophyta
classAngiospermae
RankNameAuthor
Mesangiosperms
Monocots
Monocots

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

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Or. Acorales Link 1835
+
Invalid names: Acoraceae Martinov 1820 [empty]
G. †Aglaoreidia Erdtman 1960
+
Aglaoreidia foveolata Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
Fm. Araceae de Jussieu 1789
+
G. †Acoropsis Conwentz 1886
+
Acoropsis minor Conwentz 1886
G. Acorus Linnaeus 1753 [calamus]
+
Acorus affinis Lesquereux 1873
Acorus brachystachys Heer 1870
Acorus calamus Linnaeus 1753
G. †Anthuriophyllum Weyland 1957
+
G. †Araceaeites Fritel 1910
+
Araceaeites friteli Berry 1916
Araceaeites parisiense Fritel 1910
G. †Araceaepites Biswas 1962
+
Araceaepites conditi Biswas 1962
Araceaepites nagappae Biswas 1962
G. †Araceophyllum Kraeusel 1929
+
Araceophyllum engleri Kraeusel 1929
G. †Aracispermum Nikitin
+
Aracispermum arnense Chandler 1962
G. †Arecites Squinabol 1892
+
Arecites trabucci Squinabol 1892
G. Arisaema Martius 1831
+
Arisaema cretacea Lesquereux 1891
+
Invalid names: Arisaema dubia Hollick 1897 [synonym]
Arisaema hesperia Knowlton 1926
Arisaema mattewanense Hollick 1897
G. †Arisaemites Knowlton 1896
G. †Aronites Heer 1855
+
Aronites dubius Heer 1855
G. †Aronium Ettingshausen 1870
+
Aronium extinctum Ettingshausen 1870
G. †Caladiosoma Berry 1925
+
Caladiosoma miocenica Berry 1925
G. †Campylospermum Chandler 1925
+
G. †Cobbania Stockey et al. 2007
+
Cobbania corrugata Stockey et al. 2007
G. Colocasia Schott
Subfm. Lemnoideae Babington 1843
+
G. †Aquaephyllum Gallego et al. 2014
+
Aquaephyllum auriculatum Gallego et al. 2014
Unr. †Monsteroideae Engler
+
G. Epipremnum Schott
G. †Natantisphyllum Puebla et al. 2019
+
Natantisphyllum crenae Puebla et al. 2019
Subfm. †Orontioideae Mayo et al. 1997
+
G. †Albertarum Bogner et al. 2005
+
Albertarum pueri Bogner et al. 2005
G. †Pandaniidites Elsik 1968
+
Pandaniidites typicus Sweet 1986
G. †Peltandra Rafinesque-Schmaltz
+
Peltandra primaeva Hickey 1977
G. Pistia Linnaeus 1753 [water cabbage]
+
Pistia claibornensis Berry 1914
Pistia corrugata Lesquereux 1874
Pistia nordenskioeldi Heer 1874
Pistia spathulata Michaux 1803
Pistia wilcoxensis Berry 1916
G. †Pistites Hosius and Marck 1880
+
Pistites loriformis Hosius and Marck 1880
G. †Porosia Hickey 1977
+
Porosia verrucosa Lesquereux 1878
G. †Proxapertites Van der Hammen 1956
+
Proxapertites cursus van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1966
Proxapertites humbertoides Van der Hammen 1954
Proxapertites magnus Müller et al. 1987
Proxapertites operculatus Van der Hammen 1956
Proxapertites psilatus Sarmiento 1992
Proxapertites tertiaria Van der Hammen and Garcia de Mutis 1966
Proxapertites verrucatus Sarmiento 1992
G. Thrinax Linnaeus 1788
+
Thrinax eocenica Berry 1914
G. Typhonium Schott 1829
Fm. Arecaceae von Berchtold and Presl 1820 [palm]
+
G. †Amesoneuron Göppert 1852
+
Amesoneuron noeggerathiae Goeppert 1852
Amesoneuron siwalicus Prasad 2006
G. Archontophoenix Wendland and Drude 1875
G. Areca Linnaeus 1753
+
Invalid names: Areca intertrappea Paradkar and Senad 1981 [nomen nudum]
G. †Arecipites Nichols et al. 1973
+
Arecipites asymmetricus Fredriksen 1983
Arecipites bellus Sah and Kar 1970
Arecipites botrus De Benedetti et al. 2023
Arecipites minutiscabratus Mc Intyre 1968
Arecipites punctatus Wodehouse 1958
Arecipites regio Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
+
Invalid names: Retimonocolpites regio Van der Hammen and Garcia de Mutis 1966 [synonym]
Arecipites rugosus Wodehouse 1958
Arecipites subverrucatus Mildenhall and Pocknall 1989
Arecipites waitakiensis Mildenhall and Pocknall 1989
G. Borassus Linnaeus 1753 [palmyra palm]
G. †Calamopsis Heer 1859
+
Calamopsis bredana Heer 1859
G. Caryota Linnaeus 1753 [fishtail palm]
+
Caryota siwalica Awasthi and Prasad 1990
G. Chamaedorea Willdenow 1806
+
Chamaedorea danae Brown 1962
Chamaedorea danai Lesquereux 1866
G. Cocos Linnaeus 1753 [coconut]
+
Cocos intertrappeansis Patil and Upadhye 1984
Cocos nucifera Linnaeus 1753
Cocos sahnii Kaul 1951
Unr. Coryphoideae Burnett [fan palm]
+
G. Chamaerops Linnaeus
G. Copernicia Mart
G. †Coryphoides Koch 1972
+
Coryphoides poulseni Koch 1972
G. Livistona Brown 1810
+
Livistona wadiai Lakhanpal and Guleria 1983
G. †Sabalites Saporta 1865
+
Sabalites californicus Lesquereux 1878
Sabalites campbelli Newberry 1863
Sabalites carolinensis Berry 1914
Sabalites fructifer Lesquereux 1873
Sabalites magothiensis Berry 1905
Sabalites microphylla Sahni 1964
Sabalites oxyrhachis Saporta 1865
Sabalites powellii Read and Hickey 1972
Sabalites suessionensis Fritel 1910
Sabalites tibetensis Su and Zhou 2019
G. Serenoa Hooker 1883
+
Serenoa serrulata Michaux 1803
G. Trachycarpus Wendland 1861
+
Trachycarpus ladakhensis Lakhanpal and Guleria 1984
G. †Tuzsonia Andreanszky 1949
+
Tuzsonia hungarica Andreanszky 1949
G. †Echidiporites Muller et al. 1987
+
Echidiporites barbeitoensis Muller et al. 1987
G. Erythea Watson 1880
+
Erythea californica Axelrod 1939
G. Eugeissona Griffith 1845 [bertam]
G. †Flabellaria Sternberg 1821
+
Flabellaria florissanti Lesquereux 1883
Flabellaria latania Rossmässler 1840
Flabellaria minima Lesquereux 1883
Flabellaria raphifolia Sternberg 1821
G. †Friedemannia Collinson et al. 2012
+
Friedemannia messelensis Collinson et al. 2012
G. Geonoma Willdenow 1805
+
Geonoma gigantea Knowlton 1918
G. †Geonomites Visiani 1864
+
Geonomites goldianus Lesquereux 1874
Geonomites graminifolius Lesquereux 1888
Geonomites saturnia Visiani 1864
Geonomites schimperi Lesquereux 1878
Geonomites tenuirachis Lesquereux 1878
Invalid names: Geonomites Lesquereux 1878 [objective synonym]
G. †Grimsdalea Germeraad et al. 1968
+
Grimsdalea magnaclavata Germeraad et al. 1968
G. †Hyphaeneocarpon Bande et al. 1982
+
Hyphaeneocarpon indicum Bande et al. 1982
G. Iriartea López and Jiménez 1794
G. †Iriartites Berry 1919
+
Iriartites restinensis Berry 1929
Iriartites tumbezensis Berry 1919
G. †Longapertites van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1964
+
Longapertites andreisii Archangelsky 1973
Longapertites brasiliensis González-Guzmán 1967
Longapertites circulatus González-Guzmán 1967
Longapertites cuddalorense Ramanujam 1966
Longapertites fossuloides González-Guzmán 1967
Longapertites marginatus van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1964
Longapertites microfoveolatus Adegoke and Jan du Chene 1975
Longapertites patagonicus Archangelsky 1973
Longapertites perforatus González-Guzmán 1967
Longapertites proxapertitoides Van der Hammen and Garcia de Mutis 1966
+
Longapertites proxapertitoides proxapertitoides Van der Hammen and Garcia 1966
Longapertites proxapertitoides reticulatus Van der Hammen and Garcia de Mutis 1966
Longapertites vaneendenburgi Geermerad et al. 1968
G. †Luminidites Pocknall and Mildenhall 1984
+
Luminidites colombianensis Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
G. Manicaria Gaertner 1791
+
Manicaria haydenii Newberry 1882
G. †Mauritiidites van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1964
+
Mauritiidites crassibaculatus van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1964
Mauritiidites crassiexinus Du Chene et al. 1978
Mauritiidites franciscoi van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1964
+
Mauritiidites franciscoi minutus Van der Hammen and Garcia de Mutis 1966
Mauritiidites franciscoi pachyexinatus Van der Hammen and Garcia de Mutis 1966
Mauritiidites franciscoi franciscoi van Hoeken-Klinkenberg 1964
Mauritiidites lehmanii Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978
G. †Nipadites Bowerbank 1840
G. Nypa van Wurmb 1779
+
Nypa australis Pole and Macphail 1996
Nypa burtini Brongniart 1828
Nypa fruticans Wumb 1781
+
Invalid names: Amomum sheppyense Ettinghausen and Gardner 1879 [synonym], Amomum stenocarpum Ettingshausen 1879 [synonym], Apeibopsis gigantea Fraas 1867 [synonym], Burtinia cocoides Ettingshausen 1852 [synonym], Castellinia ambigua Massalongo 1858 [synonym], Castellinia compressa Massalongo 1858 [synonym], Castellinia elliptica Massalongo 1858 [synonym], Castellinia incurva Massalongo 1852 [synonym], Castellinia subrotunda Massalongo 1852 [synonym], Castellinia zignoana Massalongo 1852 [synonym], Fracastoria anguria Massalongo 1858 [synonym], Fracastoria citriformis Massalongo 1858 [synonym], Fracastoria citrullus Massalongo 1858 [synonym], Fracastoria cucurbitina Massalongo 1858 [synonym], Fracastoria gastrioides Massalongo 1858 [synonym], Fracastoria gigantea Massalongo 1858 [synonym], Fracastoria lagenaria Massalongo 1858 [synonym], Fracastoria megapepo Massalongo 1858 [synonym], Fracastoria melo Massalongo 1858 [synonym], Fracastoria pomiformis Massalongo 1858 [synonym], Fracastoria pyramidalis Massalongo 1858 [synonym], Fracastoria pyriformis Massalongo 1858 [synonym], Fracastoria rotunda Massalongo 1858 [synonym], Fracastoria zignoana Massalongo 1858 [synonym], Nipa hindi Rode 1933 [synonym], Nipa pernambucensis Dolianiti 1955 [synonym], Nipadites acutus Bowerbank 1840 [synonym], Nipadites borneensis Kräusel 1923 [synonym], Nipadites bowerbankii Ettingshausen 1852 [synonym], Nipadites clavatus Bowerbank 1840 [synonym], Nipadites cordiformis Bowerbank 1840 [synonym], Nipadites crassus Bowerbank 1840 [synonym], Nipadites ellipticus Bowerbank 1840 [synonym], Nipadites giganteus Bowerbank 1840 [synonym], Nipadites heberti Watelet 1866 [synonym], Nipadites lanceolatus Bowerbank 1840 [synonym], Nipadites parkinsonis Bowerbank 1840 [synonym], Nipadites pruniformis Bowerbank 1840 [synonym], Nipadites pyramidalis Bowerbank 1840 [synonym], Nipadites semiteres Bowerbank 1840 [synonym], Nipadites sickenbergeri Bonnet 1904 [synonym], Nipadites turgidus Bowerbank 1840 [synonym], Nipadites umbonatus Bowerbank 1840 [synonym], Palaeokeura cretaceum Miguel 1853 [synonym], Pandanocarpum oblongum Brongniart 1828 [synonym], Rubiaceocarpum markgrafi Kraeusel 1939 [synonym]
Nypa hindi Rode 1933
Nypa sahnii Lakhanpal 1952
+
Invalid names: Nypaceae Le Maout and Decaisne 1868 [objective synonym]
G. Oraniopsis Dransfield et al. 1985
G. †Oreodoxites Goeppert 1864
+
Oreodoxites martianus Goeppert 1864
Oreodoxites plicatus Lesquereux 1883
Invalid names: Oreodoxites Lesquereux 1883 [objective synonym]
G. †Palmacites Brongniart 1822
+
Palmacites dorfii Read and Hickey 1972
Palmacites goldianus Lesquereux 1874
Palmacites khariensis Lakhanpal and Guleria 1982
Palmacites lamanonis Brongniart 1822
Invalid names: Exflabellaria La Motte 1952 [synonym]
G. †Palmocaulon Menon
+
Palmocaulon costapalmatum Kulkarni and Patil 1977
Palmocaulon hyphaeneoides Shete and Kulkarni 1980
G. †Palmostroboxylon Biradar and Bonde 1979
+
Palmostroboxylon indicum Biradar and Bonde 1979
Invalid names: Palmostroboxylon mahabalei Varadpande 1986 [nomen nudum], Palmostroboxylon umariense Bonde 1988 [nomen nudum]
G. †Palmoxylon Schenk 1882
+
Palmoxylon anchorus Stevens 1912
Palmoxylon arcotense Ramanujam 1953
Palmoxylon arviensis Ambwani 1981
Palmoxylon barbatum Sahni 1964
Palmoxylon blanfordi Schenk 1882
Palmoxylon cellulosum Knowlton 1888
Palmoxylon chhindwarense Prakash 1960
Palmoxylon cordatum Trivedi and Surange 1969
Palmoxylon coromandelensis Mahabale and Rao 1973
Palmoxylon coronatum Sahni 1980
Palmoxylon cribriforme Sahni 1964
Palmoxylon dakshinense Prakash 1960
Palmoxylon deccanense Sahni 1964
Palmoxylon dilacunosum Ambwani 1984
Palmoxylon edwardsii Sahni 1931
Palmoxylon eocenum Prakash 1962
Palmoxylon feistmantelii Rao and Achuthan 1969
Palmoxylon fibrosum Menon 1965
Palmoxylon ghughuensis Ambwani and Prakash 1983
Palmoxylon hislopii Rode 1933
Palmoxylon indicum Sahni 1931
Palmoxylon jammuense Sahni 1931
Palmoxylon kachchhensis Guleria 1983
Palmoxylon kamalam Rode 1933
Palmoxylon keriense Trivedi and Verma 1971
Palmoxylon khalsa Sahni 1964
Palmoxylon kondhaliensis Mahabale and Kulkarni 1981
Palmoxylon kraeuselii Rao and Menon 1966
Palmoxylon krishna Sahni 1931
Palmoxylon leibigianum Schenk 1882
Palmoxylon livistonoides Prakash and Ambwani 1980
Palmoxylon mahabalei Rao and Menon 1967
Palmoxylon maheshwarii Rao and Menon 1964
Palmoxylon mandlaensis Lakhanpal et al. 1979
Palmoxylon mathurii Sahni 1931
Palmoxylon narayanae Rao and Menon 1962
Palmoxylon nawargaonsis Shukla 1941
Palmoxylon pantii Trivedi and Surange 1971
Palmoxylon parapaniensis Lakhanpal et al. 1979
Palmoxylon parthasarathyi Rao and Menon 1964
Palmoxylon patagonicum Romero 1968
Palmoxylon penchense Trivedi and Verma 1974
Palmoxylon prismaticum Sahni 1964
Palmoxylon puratanum Ramanujam 1958
Palmoxylon pyriforme Sahni 1940
Palmoxylon quenstedti Felix 1883
Palmoxylon raoi Menon 1968
Palmoxylon rewahense Sahni 1964
Palmoxylon sagari Sahni 1964
Palmoxylon scottii Dayal and Menon 1965
Palmoxylon seriatum Sahni 1964
Palmoxylon shahpuraensis Ambwani 1983
Palmoxylon siltherensis Ambwani 1984
Palmoxylon solidum Rode 1934
Palmoxylon splendidum Trivedi and Chandra 1971
Palmoxylon sundaram Sahni 1931
Palmoxylon superbum Trivedi and Verma 1971
Palmoxylon surangei Lakhanpal 1956
Palmoxylon umariensis Rode 1935
Palmoxylon wadiae Sahni 1931
Invalid names: Palmoxylon ambabgholiense Gayakward and Patil 1987 [nomen nudum], Palmoxylon hyphaeneoides Rao and Shete 1986 [nomen nudum], Palmoxylon intertrappeansis Patil and Gayakwad 1985 [nomen nudum], Palmoxylon lacunata Gayakwad and Patil 1986 [nomen nudum], Palmoxylon lacunosum Trivedi et al. 1975 [nomen nudum], Palmoxylon lelei Sampath and Varadpande 1982 [nomen nudum], Palmoxylon mahurzari Barlinge and Paradkar 1975 [nomen nudum], Palmoxylon mohgaonensis Trivedi and Surange 1970 [nomen nudum], Palmoxylon mulatiensis Gayakwad and Patil 1986 [nomen nudum], Palmoxylon rambhakheriense Patil and Gayakwad 1985 [nomen nudum], Palmoxylon takliense Kapgate and Sheikh 1982 [nomen nudum]
G. †Paloreodoxites Knowlton 1930
+
G. †Parapalmocaulon Bonde 1987
+
G. †Phoenicites Brongniart 1828
+
Phoenicites pumila Brongniart 1828
G. †Racemonocolpites González-Guzmán 1967
+
Racemonocolpites facilis González-Guzmán 1967
Racemonocolpites gombeensis Beilstein 1994
Racemonocolpites hians Muller 1968
Racemonocolpites racematus Van der Hammen 1954
Racemonocolpites romanus González-Guzmán 1967
G. †Rhizopalmoxylon Felix 1883
+
Rhizopalmoxylon sundaram Mahabale 1973
Invalid names: Rhizopalmoxylon phonixoides Patil and Kulkarni 1978 [nomen nudum]
G. Sabal Adanson 1763
+
Sabal bigbendense Manchester et al. 2010
Sabal bracknellense Mai 1976
Sabal eocenica Lesquereux 1872
+
Invalid names: Flabellaria communis Lesquereux 1874 [synonym], Sabal inquirenda Knowlton 1918 [synonym]
Sabal goldiana Lesquereux 1872
Sabal grandifolia Newberry 1898
Sabal grandisperma Reid and Chandler 1933
Sabal grayana Lesquereux 1869
Sabal imperialis Dawson 1882
Sabal leei Knowlton 1918
Sabal major Unger 1963
Sabal miocenica Axelrod 1939
Sabal montana Knowlton 1918
Sabal palmetto Walter 1788
Sabal powellii Newberry 1882
Sabal rigida Hatcher 1901
Sabal rugosa Knowlton 1918
Sabal ungeri Lesquereux 1878
G. †Sabalocaulon Trivedi and Verma 1981
+
Sabalocaulon intertrappeum Trivedi and Verma 1981
G. †Sabalophyllum Bonde 1986
+
G. †Spinizonocolpites Muller 1968
+
Spinizonocolpites breviechinatus Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
Spinizonocolpites coloniensis De Benedetti et al. 2023
Spinizonocolpites complex Frederiksen 1994
Spinizonocolpites grandis Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
Spinizonocolpites hialinus Archangelsky and Zamaloa 1986
Spinizonocolpites pachyexinatus Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
Spinizonocolpites variabilis De Benedetti et al. 2023
G. †Spinopalmoxylon Weyland et al. 1966
+
G. †Tricoccites Rode 1933
+
Tricoccites trigonum Rode 1933
G. †Tripylocarpa Gandolfo and Futey 2012
+
Tripylocarpa aestuaria Gandolfo and Futey 2012
G. †Victorisporis Belsky et al. 1965
+
Victorisporis roberti Belsky et al. 1965
Invalid names: Arecoideae [empty], Borassoideae [objective synonym], Cocosocarpon Sheikh and Kolhe 1985 [nomen nudum], Cocosoideae [objective synonym], Krempocarpon Chitaley and Kate 1974 [nomen nudum], Lepidocaryoideae [objective synonym], Palmae de Jussieu [synonym], Phoenicoideae [objective synonym]
Or. Arecales Bromhead 1840
+
G. †Clavamonocolpites González-Guzmán 1967
+
Clavamonocolpites terrificus González-Guzmán 1967
Invalid names: Dasypogonaceae Dumortier 1829 [empty]
Or. Asparagales Link 1829
+
Fm. †Agavaceae Dumortier
+
G. Dracaena Linnaeus 1758
Fm. Asphodelaceae Jussieu 1789
+
G. Asphodelus Linnaeus 1753
Invalid names: Xanthorrhoeaceae Dumortier 1829 [synonym]
Fm. †Asteliaceae Dumortier 1829
+
G. †Astelia Banks et al. 1810
+
Astelia antiquua Maciunas et al. 2011
G. Milligania Hooker 1853
G. †Heliotropites Ettingshausen 1868
+
Heliotropites reussi Ettingshausen 1868
Fm. †Iridaceae de Jussieu 1789
+
G. †Iridinium Wessel 1855
+
Iridinium priscum Wessel 1855
G. †Iridium Heer 1866
+
Iridium groenlandicum Heer 1866
G. Iris Linnaeus 1753
G. †Irites Lesquereux 1887
+
Irites grandifolium Principi 1921
Fm. Orchidaceae de Jussieu 1789 [orchid]
+
Subfm. Epidendroideae Kosteletzky 1831
+
Tr. Dendrobieae Endlicher 1837
+
Subtr. Agrostophyllinae Chase 2003
Subtr. Dendrobiinae Lindley 1829
G. †Orchidacites Straus 1954
+
Subfm. Orchidoideae de Jussieu 1789
+
Invalid names: Agapanthaceae [empty], Alliaceae Borkhausen [empty], Amaryllidaceae Saint-Hilaire [empty], Anthericaceae Agardh [empty], Aphyllanthaceae Burnett [empty], Asparagaceae de Jussieu [empty], Blandfordiaceae Dahlgren and Clifford 1985 [empty], Boryaceae Chase et al. 1997 [empty], Cyanastraceae Engler [empty], Doryanthaceae Dahlgren and Clifford 1985 [empty], Eriospermaceae Endlicher [empty], Hemerocallidaceae Brown [empty], Hyacinthaceae Borkhausen [empty], Hypoxidaceae Brown 1814 [empty], Ixioliriaceae Nakai 1943 [empty], Lanariaceae Dahlgren and van Wyk 1988 [empty], Luzuriagaceae Lotsy [empty], Phormiaceae Agardh [empty], Tecophilaeaceae Leybold 1862 [empty], Trilliaceae Chevallier [empty], Xeronemataceae Chase et al. 2000 [empty]
Or. †Commelinales Mirbel 1820
+
Fm. Commelinaceae de Mirbel 1804 [dayflower]
+
G. Cyanotis Don 1825
G. Rhoeo Hance
G. Philydrum Banks et al. 1788
Fm. †Pontederiaceae Kunth 1816
+
G. Eichhornia Kunth 1843
+
Eichhornia intertrappea Patil and Singh 1978
G. Heteranthera Ruiz and Pavon 1794 [mud plantain]
+
Heteranthera cretacea Knowlton 1916
G. Monochoria Presl 1827
G. †Pontederites Knowlton 1922
+
Pontederites hesperia Knowlton 1922
Invalid names: Haemodoraceae Brown 1810 [empty], Hanguanaceae Airy Shaw 1965 [empty], Philydraceae Link 1821 [empty]
Or. Dioscoreales Brown 1835
+
Fm. Dioscoreaceae Brown 1810
+
G. †Asterocalyx Ettingshausen 1888
+
Asterocalyx stiriacus Ettingshausen 1888
G. Dioscorea Linnaeus 1753 [yam]
+
Dioscorea cretacea Lesquereux 1874
Dioscorea wilkinii Pan et al. 2014
Invalid names: Lasiophyton Uline 1897 [empty]
G. †Dioscoreophyllum Kraeusel and Weyland 1954
+
Dioscoreophyllum liblarense Kraeusel and Weyland 1954
G. †Dioscorites Saporta 1863
+
Dioscorites resurgens Saporta 1863
G. †Prototamus Langeron 1899
+
Prototamus paucinervis Langeron 1899
G. †Rimilatericutis Roselt and Schneider 1969
+
Rimilatericutis tenuis Roselt and Schneider 1969
G. Tacca Forst and Forst 1775
+
Tacca umerii Pan et al. 2014
G. †Varipilicutis Schneider 1969
+
Varipilicutis liblarensis Krausel and Weyland 1954
Invalid names: Burmanniaceae von Blume 1827 [empty], Nartheciaceae Fries 1846 [empty]
Fm. Liliaceae Jussieu 1789
+
G. †Agave Linnaeus 1758
+
Agave eocenica Ettinghausen and Gardner 1879
G. †Albucastrum Massalongo 1859
+
Albucastrum perianthiodieum Massalongo 1859
G. Aletris Linnaeus 1753 [colicroot]
G. †Brachyruscus Cockerell 1922
+
Brachyruscus alleni Cockerell 1922
G. †Cretovarium Stopes and Fujii 1910
+
Cretovarium japonicum Stopes and Fujii 1910
G. †Crinanthus Massalongo 1859
+
Crinanthus fenzlianum Massalongo 1859
G. Gloriosa Linnaeus 1753 [flame lily]
G. †Gloriosites Heer 1855
+
Gloriosites rostratus Heer 1855
G. †Liliacidites Couper 1953
+
Liliacidites aviemorensis McIntyre 1968
Liliacidites baculatus Venkatachala and Kar 1969
Liliacidites buitrensis De Benedetti et al. 2023
Liliacidites circularis Dutta and Sah 1970
Liliacidites contortus Conran et al. 2014
Liliacidites crassatus Singh 1971
Liliacidites ellipticus Venkatachala and Kar 1969
Liliacidites hungaricus Junasz and Goczan 1985
Liliacidites inequalis Singh 1971
Liliacidites intermedius Couper 1953
Liliacidites lacunosus De Benedetti et al. 2023
Liliacidites lanceolatus Stover 1973
Liliacidites microreticulatus Dutta and Sah 1970
Liliacidites minireticulatus Mathur and Mathur 1969
Liliacidites nigeriensis Salami 1985
Liliacidites regularis Archangelsky 1973
Liliacidites textus Singh 1983
Liliacidites variegatus Couper 1953
Liliacidites vermireticulatus Archangelsky and Zamaloa 1986
G. †Majanthemophyllum Weber 1851
+
G. †Smilacophyllum Weyland 1957
+
Smilacophyllum dubium Weyland 1957
Or. Liliales Perleb 1826
+
Fm. †Alstroemeriaceae Dumortier 1829
+
Subfm. Luzuriagoideae Engler 1887
+
Tr. Luzuriageae Bentham and Hooker 1883
+
G. †Luzuriaga Ruiz and Pavon 1802
Fm. †Convallariaceae Horaninow
+
G. Clintonia Rafinesque 1818 [Clinton's lily]
+
Clintonia oblongifolia Penhallow 1902
Fm. †Dracaenaceae Salisbury
+
G. †Asteliaephyllum Squinabol 1892
+
Asteliaephyllum italicum Squinabol 1892
G. Yucca Linnaeus 1753
G. Rhipogonum Forster and Forster 1775
Fm. Ripogonaceae Conran and Clifford 1985
+
G. Ripogonum Forster and Forster 1776
+
Ripogonum americanum Carpenter et al. 2014
Ripogonum tasmanicum Conran et al. 2009
Fm. Smilacaceae Ventenat 1799 [greenbrier]
+
G. †Smilacites Brongniart 1828
+
Smilacites hastata Brongniart 1828
Smilacites mohgaoensis Nambudiri 1966
G. Smilax Linnaeus 1753
+
Smilax carbonensis Cockerell 1914
Smilax coloradensis Knowlton 1917
Smilax cyclophylla Newberry 1863
Smilax franklini Heer 1868
Smilax grandifoliacretacea Lesquereux 1891
Smilax kansana Cockerell 1914
+
Invalid names: Smilax undulata Lesquereux 1892 [replaced]
Smilax labidurommae Cockerell 1914
Smilax lamarensis Knowlton 1899
Smilax obtusangula Heer 1859
Smilax pristina Ettinghausen and Gardner 1879
Smilax raritanensis Berry 1909
+
Invalid names: Paliurus ovalis Newberry 1896 [replaced]
Smilax undulata Pohl 1878
Smilax wardii Lesquereux 1888
Invalid names: Smilacites Brongniart 1828 [valid], Smilax Linnaeus 1753 [valid]
Invalid names: Calochortaceae Dumortier [empty], Campynemataceae Dumortier 1829 [empty], Colchicaceae de Candolle 1804 [empty], Corsiaceae Beccari 1878 [empty], Melanthiaceae Borkhausen 1797 [empty], Petermanniaceae Hutch. 1934 [empty], Philesiaceae Dumortier 1829 [empty], Smilacaceae Ventenat 1799 [empty]
Or. Pandanales Brown 1820
+
Fm. Cyclanthaceae Richard 1824
+
G. †Cyclanthodendron Sahni and Surange 1944
+
G. Cyclanthus Portenschlag-Ledermayer and Richard 1824
+
Cyclanthus messelensis Smith et al. 2008
G. Freycinetia Gaudichaud 1824
Fm. Pandanaceae Brown 1810
+
G. †Ludoviopsis Saporta 1868
+
Ludoviopsis discerpta Saporta 1868
G. †Palaeokeura Massalongo 1853
+
Palaeokeura pellegriniana Massalongo 1853
G. †Pandanites Dorf 1938
+
Pandanites corsoni Dorf 1938
G. Pandanus Parkinson 1773 [pandan]
+
Pandanus eocenicus Guleria and Lakhanpal 1984
G. †Podocarya Buckland 1836
+
Podocarya bucklandi Goeppert 1848
Fm. †Triuridaceae Gardner 1843
+
G. †Mabelia
+
Mabelia archaia Gandolfo et al. 2002
Mabelia connatifila Gandolfo et al. 2002
G. †Nuhliantha Gandolfo et al. 2002
+
Nuhliantha nyanzaiana Gandolfo et al. 2002
Invalid names: Stemonaceae Caruel 1878 [empty], Velloziaceae Endlicher 1858 [empty]
Or. Petrosaviales Takhtajan 1997
+
Invalid names: Petrosaviaceae Hutch. 1934 [empty]
Or. Poales Small 1903
+
Fm. †Bromeliaceae de Jussieu 1789
+
G. Bromelia Linnaeus 1753
+
Bromelia tenuifolia Lesquereux 1891
G. †Bromeliaceophyllum Weyland 1957
+
G. †Bromelianthus Massalongo 1859
+
Bromelianthus heuflerianus Massalongo 1859
Invalid names: Andreaeaites Kapgate and Sheikh 1986 [nomen nudum]
G. †Clementsiella Elias 1942
+
Clementsiella laminarum Cockerell 1942
Fm. Cyperaceae Jussieu 1789 [sedge]
+
G. Carex Linnaeus 1753
+
Carex aquatilis Wahlenberg 1803
Carex berthoudi Lesquereux 1872
Carex burrardiana Penhallow 1895
Carex clarkii Berry 1905
Carex magellanica Lamarck 1792
Carex servata Heer 1869
Carex utriculata Boott 1839
Carex vancouverensis Penhallow 1895
Unr. †Caricoideae Chandler 1957
+
G. †Caricoidea Chandler 1957
+
Caricoidea angulata Chandler 1963
Caricoidea arnei Chandler 1962
Caricoidea obovata Chandler 1961
Caricoidea obscura Chandler 1960
Caricoideae nitens Heer 1862
G. †Cladiocarya Reid and Chandler 1926
+
Cladiocarya foveolata Reid and Chandler 1926
G. Cladium Browne
+
Cladium minimum Chandler 1925
G. †Cyperaceoxylon Chitaley and Patel 1970
+
Cyperaceoxylon intertrappeum Chitaley and Patel 1970
G. †Cyperacites Schimper 1870
+
Cyperacites angustior Schimper 1870
Cyperacites borealis Heer 1868
Cyperacites dubius Heer 1855
Cyperacites giganteus Knowlton 1899
Cyperacites haydenii Lesquereux 1883
Cyperacites richardsii Thomasson 1976
Invalid names: Cyperites Heer 1855 [synonym]
G. †Cyperocarpus Pax 1906
+
G. Cyperus Linnaeus 1753 [sedge]
+
Cyperus braunianus Heer 1855
Cyperus chavannesi Heer 1855
Cyperus filiferus Cockerell 1923
+
Invalid names: Carpolithus filiferus Cockerell 1923 [synonym], Eopuntia douglassi Chaney 1944 [synonym]
Cyperus unioloides Brown 1810
G. Eleocharis Brown 1810
G. †Gahnia Forster and Forster 1775
G. †Liaoxia Cao et al. 1998
+
Liaoxia chenii Cao et al. 1998
G. Machaerina Vahl 1805
G. †Polycarpella Reid and Chandler 1933
+
Polycarpella caespitosa Reid and Chandler 1933
G. Schoenoplectus Reichenbach 1888
G. †Scirpitis Dusén 1908
G. Scirpus Linnaeus 1753
+
Scirpus lacustris Linnaeus 1753
Scirpus lakensis Chandler 1960
G. †Scleriocarya Chandler 1963
+
Scleriocarya tribrachteata Chandler 1963
G. †Volkeria Smith et al. 2009
+
Volkeria messelense Smith et al. 2009
Invalid names: Scirpoideae [empty], Scirpusoxylon Shete 1986 [nomen nudum]
Fm. †Eriocaulaceae Desvaux 1820
+
G. Eriocaulon Linnaeus 1753 [pipewort]
+
Eriocaulon porosum Lesquereux 1873
Fm. †Flagellariaceae Dumortier 1829
+
G. Flagellaria Linnaeus 1753
+
Flagellaria indica Linnaeus 1753
Fm. †Juncaceae de Jussieu 1789
+
G. Juncus Linnaeus 1753 [rush]
+
Juncus crassulus Cockerell 1908
Fm. Poaceae Barnhart 1895 [grass]
+
G. Bambusa von Schreber 1789 [bamboo]
+
Bambusa siwalika Awasthi and Prasad 1990
Subfm. Bambusoideae Luerssen 1893 [bamboo]
+
G. †Bambusiculmus Wang and Zhou 2013
+
Bambusiculmus angustus Wang and Zhou 2013
Bambusiculmus latus Wang and Zhou 2013
G. †Bambusium Unger 1845
+
Bambusium angustifolia Wang and Zhou 2013
Bambusium carolinense Fontaine 1883
Bambusium latifolia Wang and Zhou 2013
Bambusium latipseudopetiolus Wang and Sun 2014
Bambusium longipseudopetiolus Wang and Sun 2014
Bambusium sepultum Unger 1845
G. Dendrocalamus Nees 1835
G. †Graminidites Potonie 1960
+
Graminidites annulatus Potonié 1960
Graminidites antarcticus Stuchlik 1981
Graminidites assamicus Sah and Dutta 1968
Graminidites bambusoides Stuchlik 1964
Graminidites ellipticus Mathur and Chopra 1987
Graminidites media Cookson 1947
Graminidites protrudus Mathur and Mathur 1969
G. †Culmites Bronignart 1822
+
Culmites anomalus Bronignart 1822
Culmites cutchensis Sahni 1964
Culmites deccanensis Paradkar 1975
Culmites eleusineoides Bonde 1986
G. Elymus Linnaeus 1753 [wheatgrass]
+
Elymus deccanensis Patil and Singh 1984
G. †Eragrosites Cao et al. 1998
+
Eragrosites changii Cao et al. 1998
G. †Glycerioxylon Trivedi and Bajpai 1982
+
Glycerioxylon mohgaonense Trivedi and Bajpai 1982
G. †Graminocarpon Chitaley and Sheikh 1971
+
Graminocarpon mohgaoense Chitaley and Sheikh 1971
G. †Hygrorhizos Trivedi et al. 1985
+
Hygrorhizos deccanii Trivedi et al. 1985
G. Lygeum Linnaeus 1754
G. †Monoporopollenites Meyer 1956
+
Monoporopollenites annulatus Jaramillo and Dilcher 2001
Monoporopollenites minimus Potonié and Sah 1960
G. Zea Linnaeus 1753 [teosinte]
+
Zea mays Linnaeus 1753 [maize]
Invalid names: Cerealia [empty], Gramineae de Jussieu [synonym], Palaeozea Bajpai 1987 [nomen nudum]
Fm. †Restionaceae Brown 1810
+
G. †Milfordia Erdtman 1960
+
Milfordia argentina Barreda 1997
Milfordia homeopunctata Partridge 1973
Milfordia incierta Krutzsch 1961
Invalid names: Anarthriaceae Cutler and Airy Shaw 1965 [synonym], Centrolepidaceae Endlicher 1836 [synonym]
G. †Triticoides De Stefani 1948
+
Triticoides blanchii De Stefani 1948
Fm. Typhaceae Jussieu 1789
+
G. †Sparganiaceaepollenites Thiergart 1937
+
Sparganiaceaepollenites annulatus De Benedetti et al. 2023
Sparganiaceaepollenites delicata Mautino and Anzótegui 2002
Sparganiaceaepollenites uniformis Christopher and Prowell 2002
G. Typha Linnaeus 1753 [bulrush]
+
Typha angustata Bory de Saint-Vincent and Chaubard 1832
Typha latifolia Linnaeus 1753
Typha lesquereuxi Cockerell 1908
G. †Typhacites Saporta 1890
+
Typhacites rugosus Saporta 1890
G. †Typhaeloipum Unger 1845
+
Typhaeloipum lacustre Unger 1845
G. †Typhaephyllum Prakash and Boureau 1970
+
Typhaephyllum scammoni Prakash and Boureau 1970
G. †Vallisnerites Heer 1878
+
Fm. Xyridaceae Agardh 1823 [yellow-eyed grass]
+
G. Xyris Linnaeus 1753
G. †Yorkia Wanner 1900
+
Yorkia gramineoides Ward 1900
Invalid names: Ecdeiocoleaceae Cutler and Airy Shaw 1965 [empty], Joinvilleaceae Smith and Tomlinson 1970 [empty], Mayacaceae Kunth 1842 [empty], Rapateaceae Dumortier 1829 [empty], Thurniaceae Engler 1907 [empty]
+
Fm. †Cannaceae de Jussieu 1789
+
G. Canna Linnaeus 1753
+
Canna eocenica Berry 1916
Canna magnifolia Knowlton 1917
G. †Cannaites Trivedi and Verma 1971
+
Cannaites intertrappea Trivedi and Verma 1971
G. Ensete Bruce 1862
+
Ensete goldianum Lesquereux 1878
Ensete oregonense Manchester and Kress 1993
Fm. †Marantaceae Brown 1814
+
G. Alpinia Roxburgh 1810 [Shell ginger]
+
Alpinia siwalica Prasad et al. 2004
G. Clinogyne Salisbury
G. Donax Loureiro 1790
+
Donax kasauliensis Prasad and Dwivedi 2008
Donax ovatus Awasthi and Prasad 1990
G. Phrynium Willdenow 1797
Fm. †Musaceae de Jussieu 1789
+
G. †Haastia Ettingshausen 1887
+
Haastia speciosa Ettingshausen 1887
G. Heliconia Linnaeus 1771 [lobster-claw]
G. †Heliconiaites Trivedi and Verma 1972
+
Heliconiaites mohgaonensis Trivedi and Verma 1972
G. Musa Linnaeus 1758
+
Musa cardiospermum Jain 1964
Musa eocenica Ettinghausen and Gardner 1879
G. †Musocaulon Jain 1964
+
Musocaulon indicum Jain 1964
G. †Musophyllum Göppert 1854
+
Musophyllum complicatum Lesquereux 1874
Musophyllum indicum Prakash et al. 1979
Musophyllum truncatum Goeppert 1854
Invalid names: Musostrobocaulon Varadpande 1985 [nomen nudum]
Fm. Zingiberaceae Martinov 1820
+
G. †Amomocarpum Brongniart 1828
+
Amomocarpum affine Sahni 1938
Amomocarpum depressum Brongniart 1828
Amomocarpum sulcatum Sahni 1934
G. †Amomophyllum Watelet 1866
+
Amomophyllum tenua Watelet 1866
G. †Amomum Roxburgh
G. †Spirematospermum Chandler 1925
+
G. †Zingiberites Heer 1859
+
Zingiberites dubius Lesquereux 1878
G. †Zingiberoideophyllum Kraeusel and Weyland 1954
+
Zingiberoideophyllum liblarense Kraeusel and Weyland 1954
G. †Zingiberopsis Hickey 1977
+
Zingiberopsis isonervosa Hickey 1977
Invalid names: Costaceae Nakai 1941 [empty], Heliconiaceae Vines 1895 [empty], Lowiaceae Ridley 1924 [empty], Strelitziaceae Hutch. 1934 [empty]
Invalid names: Commelinids [empty]
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Diet: "photoautotroph"p
Created: 2011-07-22 00:04:15
Modified: 2011-07-21 09:04:15
Source: p = phylum
Reference: Kiessling 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Carnian to the top of the Holocene or 237.00000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 228.0 Ma

Collections (1594 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Carnian237.0 - 228.0USA (Virginia) Sanmiguelia sp. (24112)
Carnian - Norian237.0 - 208.5USA (Texas) Sanmiguelia sp. (84270)
Early/Lower Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8France Palaeospadix furcatus, Palaeospadix spathaeformis (24514)
Neocomian145.0 - 130.0Mongolia (Dornogov) Arecaceae indet. (137862)
Early/Lower Cretaceous145.0 - 100.5USA (Georgia) Phragmites pratti (212691)
Cretaceous - Paleogene145.0 - 23.03India (Madhya Pradesh) Palmoxylon rewahense (225725)
Late/Upper Barremian - Early/Lower Aptian130.0 - 122.46China (Liaoning) Eragrosites changii, Liaoxia chenii (31541)
Late/Upper Barremian - Early/Lower Aptian130.0 - 122.46Argentina (Neuquén) Liliacidites sp. (149818)
Barremian129.4 - 125.0Egypt (El Wadi El Gadid) Liliacidites sp. (139495 139499)
Barremian129.4 - 125.0Japan (Ishikawa) Arecaceae indet. (32324)
Barremian - Aptian129.4 - 113.0Israel (Negev) Liliacidites sp. A (140290 140291)
Early/Lower Aptian125.45 - 122.46Israel (Negev) Liliacidites sp. A (140352)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Mexico (Chiapas) Arecipites sp. (68835)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5Peru (Loreto) Liliacidites heterobrochatus (144299)
Aptian - Cenomanian125.0 - 93.9Australia (Queensland) Liliacidites intermedius (163581)
Late/Upper Aptian122.46 - 112.03Brazil (Caerá) Liliacidites lenticularis (150987 150990)
Late/Upper Aptian122.46 - 112.03Brazil (Maranhão) Liliacidites sp . (150515)
Late/Upper Aptian122.46 - 112.03Argentina (Santa Cruz) Arecipites sp., Spinizonocolpites sp., Proxapertites sp. (149927)
Late/Upper Aptian122.46 - 112.03Brazil (Ceará) Arecipites spp. (151002) Liliacidites lenticularis (150983)
Albian113.0 - 100.5Peru (Loreto) Liliacidites variegatus (144967 144970)