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Hesperocyon gregarius

Mammalia - Carnivora - Canidae

Taxonomy
Canis gregarius was named by Cope (1873) [accidental replacement of"Amphicyon gracilis" Leidy 1856 by Cope 1873].

It was recombined as Galecynus gregarius by Cope (1881) and Cope (1884); it was synonymized subjectively with Cynodictis gracilis by Scott and Osborn (1887); it was recombined as Cynodictis gregarius by Scott (1898), Wortman and Matthew (1899), Hay (1902) and Schlaikjer (1935); it was recombined as Pseudocynodictis gregarius by Schlosser (1902), Matthew (1918), Scott and Jepsen (1936), Hough (1948) and Galbreath (1953); it was synonymized subjectively with Cynodictis angustidens by Thorpe (1922), Thorpe (1922) and Thorpe (1924); it was recombined as Hesperocyon gregarius by Scott (1890), Green (1952), Macdonald (1970), Gustafson (1986), Wang (1994) and Wang and Tedford (1996).

Synonyms
  • Amphicyon gracilis was named by Leidy (1856). Its type specimen is ANSP 11072, a maxilla (fragment of left ramus), and it is a 3D body fossil.

    It was synonymized subjectively with Cynodictis hylactor by Hay (1902); it was replaced with Hesperocyon gregarius by Wang (1994).
  • Cynodictis hylactor was named by Hay (1899).

    It was synonymized subjectively with Cynodictis lippincottianus by Thorpe (1922); it was synonymized subjectively with Pseudocynodictis gregarius by Scott and Jepsen (1936); it was synonymized subjectively with Pseudocynodictis angustidens by Hough (1948); it was synonymized subjectively with Pseudocynodictis lippincottianus by Galbreath (1953); it was synonymized subjectively with Hesperocyon gregarius by Gustafson (1986).
  • Cynodictis paterculus was named by Matthew (1903). Its type specimen is AMNH 9616, a mandible, and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Pipestone Springs, which is in a Chadronian terrestrial claystone in the Renova Formation of Montana.

    It was recombined as Pseudocynodictis paterculus by Clark (1937) and Galbreath (1953); it was recombined as Hesperocyon paterculus by Green (1952), Macdonald (1970) and Gustafson (1986); it was synonymized subjectively with Pseudocynodictis gregarius by Hough and Alf (1956); it was synonymized subjectively with Hesperocyon gregarius by Bryant (1993) and Wang (1994).
  • Nanodelphys mcgrewi was named by Russell (1972) [mistakenly synonymized with Stibarus by Stucky 1998, who retains genotype of Nanochoerus in Leptochoerus mistakenly synonymized with Stibarus by Stucky 1998, who retains genotype of Nanochoerus in Leptochoerus mistakenly synonymized with Stibarus by Stucky 1998, who retains genotype of Nanochoerus in Leptochoerus]. Its type specimen is ROM 1812, a tooth (right M1), and it is a 3D body fossil.

    It was recombined as Peradectes mcgrewi by Crochet (1978), Bown (1979), Crochet (1980) and Krishtalka and Stucky (1983); it was recombined as Alloeodectes mcgrewi by Russell (1984); it was synonymized subjectively with Hesperocyon by Bryant (1991); it was synonymized subjectively with Hyaenodon minutus by Korth (1994); it was synonymized subjectively with Hesperocyon gregarius by Wang (1994).
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1856Amphicyon gracilis Leidy p. 90
1857Amphicyon gracilis Leidy p. 90
1873Canis gregarius Cope p. 3
1881Galecynus gregarius Cope
1884Galecynus gregarius Cope
1890Hesperocyon gregarius Scott
1898Cynodictis gregarius Scott
1899Cynodictis hylactor Hay
1899Cynodictis gregarius Wortman and Matthew p. 130
1902Cynodictis gregarius Hay p. 771
1902Cynodictis hylactor Hay p. 771
1902Pseudocynodictis gregarius Schlosser
1903Cynodictis paterculus Matthew p. 209
1918Pseudocynodictis gregarius Matthew
1935Cynodictis gregarius Schlaikjer
1936Pseudocynodictis gregarius Scott and Jepsen
1937Pseudocynodictis paterculus Clark
1948Pseudocynodictis gregarius Hough
1952Hesperocyon gregarius Green
1952Hesperocyon paterculus Green
1953Pseudocynodictis gregarius Galbreath
1953Pseudocynodictis paterculus Galbreath
1970Hesperocyon gregarius Macdonald
1970Hesperocyon paterculus Macdonald
1972Nanodelphys mcgrewi Russell
1978Peradectes mcgrewi Crochet
1979Peradectes mcgrewi Bown
1980Peradectes mcgrewi Crochet
1983Peradectes mcgrewi Krishtalka and Stucky
1984Alloeodectes mcgrewi Russell
1986Hesperocyon gregarius Gustafson
1986Hesperocyon paterculus Gustafson
1994Hesperocyon gregarius Wang p. 26
1996Hesperocyon gregarius Wang and Tedford

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
RankNameAuthor
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
Laurasiatheria
Scrotifera
Ferae()
CarnivoramorphaWyss and Flynn 1993
CarnivoraformesFlynn et al.
orderCarnivoraBowditch 1821
suborderCaniformiaKretzoi 1943
superfamilyCanoideaSimpson 1931
familyCanidaeFischer 1817
subfamilyHesperocyoninaeTedford 1978
genusHesperocyonScott 1890
speciesgregarius()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: ground dwellingf
Diet: carnivoref
Diet 2: omnivoref
Created: 2005-06-08 10:11:09
Modified: 2005-08-22 19:28:06
Source: f = family, subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Nowak 1991, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009, Ji et al. 2002

Age range: base of the Duchesnean to the top of the Whitneyan or 40.40000 to 30.80000 Ma

Collections (133 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Duchesnean40.4 - 37.2Canada (Saskatchewan) Hesperocyon sp. (16845)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (Nebraska) Hesperocyon gregarius (16918 16985 16995 17003 17025 17038) Hesperocyon sp. (16930) Pseudocynodictis paterculus (16929)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (Montana) Hesperocyon gregarius (16959 16988 16997 17028) Hesperocyon paterculus (16924 16925 17010)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9Canada (Saskatchewan) Hesperocyon gregarius (16919)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (Colorado) Pseudocynodictis paterculus (16977)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (South Dakota) Hesperocyon gregarius (17006 17007)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (North Dakota) Hesperocyon gregarius (16991 17042)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (Wyoming) Cynodictis paterculus (16898) Hesperocyon gregarius (16891 16896 16932 16943 16974 16998 17017 17022 17024 17044) Hesperocyon paterculus (16962 16963 16964) Hesperocyon sp. (16961) Pseudocynodictis paterculus (16920)
Late/Upper Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (Montana) Hesperocyon gregarius (17027)
Middle Chadronian - Late/Upper Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (Colorado) Hesperocyon gregarius (156988)
Orellan33.9 - 33.3USA (Montana) Hesperocyon gregarius (17074 17090 17138)
Orellan33.9 - 33.3USA (North Dakota) Hesperocyon gregarius (17101 17125 17128 17139 17301)
Orellan33.9 - 33.3Canada (Saskatchewan) Hesperocyon gregarius (17111)
Orellan33.9 - 33.3USA (Nebraska) Cynodictis paterculus (17096) Hesperocyon gregarius (17046 17047 17048 17049 17050 17052 17062 17080 17098 17107 17108 17112 17114 17135 17155 17159 17164 17168 17176 17177 17201 17203 17204 17205 17206 17207 17211 17212 17216 17220 17221 17231 17232 17235 17237 17241 17247 17248 17257 17260 17265 17271 17273 17286 17287 17289 17290 17292)
Orellan33.9 - 33.3USA (South Dakota) Cynodictis gregarius (17092 17094) Hesperocyon gregarius (17143 17162 17169 17181 17192 163487)
Orellan33.9 - 33.3USA (Wyoming) Cynodictis gregarius (17117) Hesperocyon gregarius (17054 17073 17087 17099 17104 17106 17118 17123 17126 17149 17167 17172 17185 17193 17194 17196 17303)
Orellan33.9 - 33.3USA (Colorado) Pseudocynodictis gregarius (17081 17082)
Whitneyan33.3 - 30.8USA (Nebraska) Hesperocyon gregarius (17310 17325 17368 17374 17405)
Whitneyan33.3 - 30.8USA (South Dakota) Hesperocyon gregarius (17344)
Whitneyan33.3 - 30.8USA (North Dakota) Hesperocyon gregarius (17432)