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Miniochoerus starkensis

Mammalia - Artiodactyla - Merycoidodontidae

Taxonomy
Miniochoerus starkensis was named by Schultz and Falkenbach (1956). Its type specimen is F:AM 45497, a partial skeleton (Partial skull with C/(rt.)-M3 (P2 rt.), partial mandible with p1-p2 rt. and p3-m3 and vertebrae), and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Little Badlands (Brule Zone B), which is in an Orellan terrestrial horizon in North Dakota.

It was recombined as Oreonetes starkensis by Lander (1998).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1956Miniochoerus starkensis Schultz and Falkenbach p. 398 figs. 1 - 2
1956Miniochoerus nicholsae Schultz and Falkenbach p. 400 figs. 1 - 2, 11
1956Miniochoerus cheyennensis Schultz and Falkenbach p. 401 figs. 1, 2
1956Miniochoerus (Paraminiochoerus) ottensi Schultz and Falkenbach p. 424 figs. 3 - 4, 9 - 11
1956Platyochoerus heartensis Schultz and Falkenbach p. 432 figs. 5 - 6, 9 - 11
1956Platyochoerus hatcreekensis Schultz and Falkenbach p. 433 figs. 5 - 6, 9 - 11
1956Stenopsochoerus berardae Schultz and Falkenbach p. 441 figs. 6 - 7, 9 - 11
1956Stenopsochoerus joderensis Schultz and Falkenbach p. 441 figs. 6 - 7
1956Stenopsochoerus berardae Schultz and Falkenbach p. 442 figs. 6 - 7, 9 - 11
1996Miniochoerus starkensis Stevens and Stevens
1998Oreonetes cheyennensis Lander
1998Oreonetes nicholsae Lander
1998Oreonetes starkensis Lander
2007Miniochoerus starkensis Stevens and Stevens p. 158

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
RankNameAuthor
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
orderArtiodactyla()
suborderTylopoda()
superfamilyOreodontoidea
familyMerycoidodontidaeThorpe 1923
subfamilyMiniochoerinae
genusMiniochoerus
speciesstarkensis

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1956 (Miniochoerus cheyennensis)SKULL: Medium size; largest of subfamily; sagittal crest more prominent than in other species of genus; orbit small for size of skull; malar moderately deep below orbit, deeper than in examples of M. nicholsae; infarorbital foramen in area just posterior to P3 ; lacrimal fossa shallow, more so than in examples of M. battlecreekensis, approximately equal to those of M. nicholsae, occipital condyles larger than in examples of M. battlecreekensis; bulla larger and hyoid pit more posterior than in other species of genus.
MANDIBLE: Known only from tentatively referred specimens.
DENTITION:Series longer than in other examples of genus; C/ large; superior premolars small in comparison with molars, slightly larger than those of M. nicholsae; superior molars large and robust; external styles of superior molars very prominent; P' with prominent anterior intermediate crest.
LIMBS: Unknown.
C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1956 (Miniochoerus nicholsae)SKULL: Medium size,larger than examples of M. battlecreekensis and M. starkensis, smaller than holotype of M. cheyennensis; frontals moderately wide, wider and more convex than those of M. starkensis; orbit round and small; malar moderately deep below orbit, deeper than in examples of M. battlecreekensis and M. starkensis, approaching depth of that of holotype of M. cheyennensis; infraorbital foramen above posterior portion of pa; lacrimal fossa moderately shallow; occipital condyles slightly heavier than those of M. starkensis, slightly smaller than those of M. cheyennesis; paroccipital process more robust than in examples of M. battlecreekensis and M. starkensis ; bulla slightly larger and hyoid pit more posterior than in examples of M. battlecreekensis, more like those of M. starkensis, smaller than in holotype of M. cheyennensis; postglenoid process wider transversely than in examples of M. starkensis.
MANDIBLE: Slightly longer than in examples of M. battlecreekensis, approaching in sizethose of M. starkensis; postsymphysis below P4; inferior border of ramus with moderately abrupt downward curve posterior to Ms ; inferior border of ascending ramus with prominent inward curve, more so than in examples of M. starkensis; condyle similar in size to those of M. starkensis, set approximately at right angle to axis of dental series, external border of condyle higher than internal border.
DENTITION:Length of series intermediate between those of M. starkensis and M. cheyennensis; C/ smaller than in examples of M. cheyennensis; premolars approximately equal to those of last-mentioned species ; external styles of superior molars prominent.
LIMBS: Larger and more robust than in M. battlecreekensis. (Known only from partial tibia.)
C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1956 (Miniochoerus (Paraminiochoerus) ottensi)SKULL: Slightly larger on average than examples of M. (P.) helprini; infraorbital foramen above anterior border of P4.
MANDIBLE: Similar to those of M. (P.) helprini; condyle slightly longer transversely than in examples of mentioned species.
DENTITION: Series averaging longer than in examples of M. (P.) helprini; premolars, with exception of P1, longer and wider than those of M. (P.) helprini; molars noticeably longer and wider than those of above-mentioned species.
LIMBS: Fore limbs equal in length but more robust, and hind limbs longer and more robust than in M. (P.) affinis; proximal and distal ends more robust than in M. (P.) helprini.
C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1956SKULL: Small size; approximate size of larger examples of M. battlecreekensis, smaller than those of M. nicholsae; supraorbital foramina closer together than in examples of M. battlecreekensis, orbit small and round, smaller
than those of M. battlecreekensis, approximately equal to those of M. nicholsae; malar moderately shallow below orbit but deeper than in examples of M. battlecreekensis and less deep than in those of M. nicholsae; infraorbital foramen above posterior portion of P3 ; lacrimal fossa moderately deep, slightly larger but shallower than in examples of M. battlecreekensis, deeper than in those of M. nicholsae; occipital condyles moderately large, larger than in examples of M. battlecreekensis, lighter than in those of M. nicholsae; bulla small, slightly larger, and with hyoid pit more posterior than in examples of M. battlecreekensis, more like those of M. nicholsae.
MANDIBLE: Length and depth of ramus within variation found in larger examples of M. battlecreekensis; postsymphysis below P 8 ; inferior border of ramus with gradual downward curve posterior to Ms, less curve than in examples of M. nicholsae; ascending ramus higher than in examples of M. battlecreekensis, inferior border with slight inward curve similar to those of M. battlecreekensis, less inward curve than in those of M. nicholsae; condyle set approximately at right angle to axis of dental series, external border higher than internal border, similar to those of M. nicholsae, more robust than in those of M. battlecreekensis.
DENTITION: C/ and P1 moderately large (known only from roots) ; premolars comparable with those of M. battlecreekensis; molars noticeably larger than those of latter species, smaller than those of M. nicholsae, external styles of superior molars more prominent than in examples of M. battlecreekensis.
LIMBS: Unknown.
C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1956 (Platyochoerus hatcreekensis)SKULL: Medium size, largest known of genus ; more robust than examples of P. heartensis and P. platycephalus ,· width greater than in those of the latter, approximately equal to those of the former ; nasals wider than in other examples of genus ; infraorbital foramen above P•; posterior palate with slightly more posterior projection than in other species of genus.
MANDIBLE:More robust, larger and deeper than in examples of P. platycephalus, tendency to be slightly larger than those of P. heartensis; condyle larger than those of P. platycephalus and slightly larger than those of P. heartensis, condyle set approximately at right angle to axis of dental series, external border higher than internal border.
DENTITION: Series with tendency to be longer and definitely more robust than in other examples of genus; C/ and P1 large; premolars crowded, decidedly more so than in other species of genus.
LIMBS: Approximately equal to examples of P. hearlensis but more robust, longer and more robust than those of P. platycephalus.
C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1956 (Platyochoerus heartensis)SKULL: Moderately small size, larger and considerably wider than examples of P. platycephalus, slightly smaller than those of P. hat- creekensis; nasals broad, wider than in P. platycephalus; infraorbital foramen above posterior portion of P8.
MANDIBLE: Ramus more robust and deeper than in examples of P. platycephalus, approaching size and robustness of those of P. hatcreekensis; ascending ramus tending to be higher than in P. platycephalus; external border of condyle higher and more anterior than internal border.
DENTITION: Length of series within variation of larger examples of P. platycephalus and smaller examples of P. hatcreekensis, lighter than those of latter, more comparable with those of former; C/ and P1 moderately large; pre-molars with less crowding than in examples of P. hatcreekensis.
LIMBS: Longer and more robust than in examples of P. platycephalus, approaching those of P. hatcreekensis.
C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1956 (Stenopsochoerus berardae)SKULL: Medium size, largest known of genus, slightly larger than examples of S. (Pseudostenopsochoerus) chadronensis (from Chadron) ; mesocephalic; frontals markedly convex transversely; nasals moderately broad, slightly more anterior retraction than in examples of S. joderensis and S. sternbergi; zygomatic arch with sharp posterior rise of inferior border from below orbit, more pronounced than in S. sternbergi; malar moderately deep below orbit, deeper than those of S. sternbergi; lacrimal fossa small but rather deep; occipital condyles of medium size; auditory bulla small; postglenoid process narrower transversely than in other species of genus; posterior palate with greater posterior projection than in other species of genus.
MANDIBLE: Larger than in other species of genus ; slightly more robust than those of S. sternbergi,comparablewith those of S. joderen- sis; ramus decidedly deeper than in examples of S. sternbergi; inferior border of ramus straight, but sloping noticeably downward posteriorly; condyle with external and internal borders on horizontal plane (in other two species of genus external border higher than internal border).
DENTITION: Series averaging longer than in holotype of S. joderensis, longer than in examples of S. sternbergi; premolars comparatively small, approximately equal in size to those of S. sternbergi; molars decidedly larger than those of latter species, somewhat larger than those of holotype of S. joderensis.
LIMBS: Longer and more robust than those of S. sternbergi.
C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1956 (Stenopsochoerus joderensis)SKULL: Moderately small size; larger than examples of S. sternbergi, smaller than those of S. berardae; mesocephalic; frontals more convex laterally than in examples of S. sternbergi, more like those of S. berardae; nasals moderately robust, similar to those of last-mentioned species ; malar moderately deep below orbit; auditory bulla slightly larger than in examples of S. sternbergi; postglenoid process higher and wider transversely and with more abrupt slope to external border than in other examples of genus.
MANDIBLE: Moderately small size; slightly more robust than in examples of S. sternbergi; ramus deeper than in latter species, within variation of examples of S. berardae; inferior border of ramus straight, but sloping noticeably downward posteriorly, similar to those of S. berardae; condyle moderately robust, more so than in examples of S. sternbergi, external border higher and more posterior than internal border.
DENTITION: Series slightly longer than in largest example of S. sternbergi, within range of variation of those of S. berardae; premolars approximately equal in size to those of S. sternbergi and S. berardae; molars larger than in former species, smaller than in latter ; external styles of superior molars somewhat more prominent than in S. sternbergi.
LIMBS: Unknown.