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Pliohippus proversus

Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Equidae

Taxonomy
Pliohippus proversus was named by Merriam (1916). Its type specimen is UCMP 21330, a tooth (a superior molar, m1 or m2, of the left side), and it is a 3D body fossil.

It was recombined as Plesippus proversus by Matthew (1924), Hay (1930), Matthew and Stirton (1930), Matthew and Stirton (1930), Russell and VanderHoof (1931), Gazin (1936), Schultz (1936) and Schultz (1937); it was recombined as Equus proversus by Stirton (1940); it was synonymized subjectively with Equus simplicidens by Savage (1951), Skinner et al. (1972) and Kurten and Anderson (1980); it was considered a nomen dubium by Winans (1989), Macdonald (1992) and Kelly (1998).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1916Pliohippus proversus Merriam
1918Pliohippus proversus Osborn p. 170 figs. Text Figs. 137, 138
1924Plesippus proversus Matthew p. 2
1930Plesippus proversus Hay
1930Plesippus proversus Matthew and Stirton
1931Plesippus proversus Russell and VanderHoof
1936Plesippus proversus Gazin
1936Plesippus proversus Schultz
1937Plesippus proversus Schultz
1940Equus proversus Stirton p. 195

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
OlfactoresJefferies 1991
subphylumVertebrata
Gnathostomata()
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
RankNameAuthor
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
orderPerissodactyla()
suborderLophodontomorpha
infraorderEuperissodactyla
Hippomorpha
superfamilyEquoidea
familyEquidae
subfamilyEquinaeSteinmann and Döderlein 1890
tribeEquini
genusPliohippus
speciesproversus

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
H. F. Osborn 1918(Merriam, 1916, p. 526) "Cheek-teeth large, long-crowned, heavily cemented. Upper cheek-teeth slightly curved; mesostyle heavy; fossettes wide to narrow, with moderately crinkled enamel borders; protocone large, strongly compressed laterally in the molars, inner border convex or nearly flat. Lower cheek-teeth with short or long parastylid; metaconid-metastylid column commonly long anteroposteriorly and narrow transversely, inner groove wide, flat as in Equua, or somewhat narrowed tending toward the angular form seen in Pliohippua; outer faces of protoconid and hypoconid either convex or somewhat flattened. Limb elements, so far as known, much like those of Equua. Unciform facet of metacarpal III sloping away from the plane of the magnum at approximately the angle shown in Equua. Late;ral digits apparently much reduced distally and feet presumably monodactyle."