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Calippus hondurensis

Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Equidae

Taxonomy
Pliohippus hondurensis was named by Olson and McGrew (1941). Its type locality is Rancho Lobo, which is in a Miocene terrestrial horizon in the Gracias Formation of Honduras.

It was recombined as Calippus (Grammohippus) hondurensis by Hulbert (1988); it was recombined as Calippus hondurensis by MacFadden (1998) and Kelly (1998).

Synonyms
  • Protohippus castilli was named by Cope (1886). Its type specimen is AMNH 8344, a tooth (An upper molar of the left side), and it is a 3D body fossil.

    It was recombined as Merychippus castilli by Hay (1902); it was recombined as Pliohippus (Pliohippus) castilli by Stirton (1940); it was recombined as Calippus castilli by Carranza-Castaneda (1993); it was considered a nomen dubium by Dalquest and Mooser (1980) and Macdonald (1992); it was synonymized subjectively with Calippus hondurensis by MacFadden (1998).
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1886Protohippus castilli Cope
1893Protohippus castilli Cope p. 26
1902Merychippus castilli Hay
1907Protohippus castilli Gidley p. 901
1918Protohippus castilli Osborn p. 141 figs. Text Fig. 113
1940Pliohippus (Pliohippus) castilli Stirton p. 192
1941Pliohippus hondurensis Olson and McGrew
1988Calippus (Grammohippus) hondurensis Hulbert, Jr. p. 271 figs. 15H - 15I
1993Calippus castilli Carranza-Castaneda
1998Calippus hondurensis Kelly
1998Calippus hondurensis MacFadden p. 550

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
RankNameAuthor
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
orderPerissodactyla()
suborderLophodontomorpha
infraorderEuperissodactyla
Hippomorpha
superfamilyEquoidea
familyEquidae
subfamilyEquinaeSteinmann and Döderlein 1890
tribeEquini
genusCalippus()
specieshondurensis()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
H. F. Osborn 1918 (Protohippus castilli)(Cope, 1885, Osborn, 1917) (1) Of larger size than the type of Hipparion peninsulatum; (2) protocone larger and more prominent than hypocone, connected with protoconule and metaconule respectively; (3) crown of molar of medium length, strongly curved inward; (4) grinding surface a little wider than long; (5) fossettes subtriangular, strongly convex inward, each with one large and one smaller enamel fold; (6) external styles prominent.
R. C. Hulbert 1988Smaller than C. mmtini or "Protohippus" castilli, with moderately worn toothrow lengths of about 101 to 112 mm. Unworn molar crown height about 55 mm. Protocone small, oval, with persistent preprotoconal groove and flattened lingual border. Hypoconal groove shallow; persistently open until late wear-stages in molars; closed earlier in premolars, without hypoconallakes on P34. Molars with pli caballins in early wear. Ectoflexid generally shallower than in C. cerasinus, rarely penetrating isthmus in p2-p4. Large metastylid on p34. Protostylids variably developed.