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Nannippus peninsulatus

Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Equidae

Taxonomy
Hippotherium peninsulatum was named by Cope (1885). Its type specimen is AMNH 8345, a tooth (a right superior molar, ?M2), and it is a 3D body fossil.

It was recombined as Hipparion peninsulatum by Felix and Lenk (1891), Roger (1896), Trouessart (1898), Matthew (1899), Hay (1902), Osborn (1918) and Hay (1930); it was synonymized subjectively with Neohipparion montezuma by Gidley (1907); it was recombined as Neohipparion peninsulatum by Matthew (1909); it was considered a nomen dubium by Macdonald (1992); it was recombined as Nannippus peninsulatus by Stirton (1940), Lance (1950), Dalquest and Mooser (1980), MacFadden (1984) and MacFadden (1998).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1882Hippotherium montezumae Leidy
1885Hippotherium peninsulatum Cope
1889Hippotherium montezumae Cope p. 435
1889Hippotherium peninsulatum Cope p. 436
1891Hipparion peninsulatum Felix and Lenk
1893Equus minutus Cope p. 67
1896Hipparion montezuma Roger
1896Hipparion peninsulatum Roger
1898Hipparion montezuma Trouessart
1898Hipparion peninsulatum Trouessart
1899Equus phlegon Hay p. 345
1899Hipparion montezuma Matthew
1899Hipparion peninsulatum Matthew
1901Protohippus phlegon Gidley p. 127 figs. 18 - 19
1902Hipparion montezuma Hay
1902Hipparion peninsulatum Hay
1902Merychippus phlegon Hay
1904Equus montezuma Osborn
1905Merychippus phlegon Trouessart
1905Neohipparion montezuma Trouessart
1907Neohipparion montezuma Gidley p. 899
1909Neohipparion montezuma Matthew
1909Neohipparion peninsulatum Matthew
1909Protohippus phlegon Matthew
1915Neohipparion montezuma Merriam
1917Hipparion cragini Hay
1918Pliohippus phlegon Osborn
1918Pliohippus minutus Osborn p. 169 figs. Plate 33.8. Text Fig. 136
1918Hipparion montezuma Osborn p. 197 figs. Text Fig. 162
1918Hipparion peninsulatum Osborn p. 198 figs. Text Fig. 163
1925Hipparion phlegon Matthew
1925Hipparion montezuma Merriam et al.
1926Hipparion phlegon Matthew
1930Hipparion peninsulatum Hay
1930Hipparion montezuma Matthew and Stirton
1930Hipparion phlegon Matthew and Stirton
1936Nannippus phlegon McGrew
1937Nannippus phlegon Hibbard
1940Nannippus cragini Stirton p. 186
1940Nannippus montezumae Stirton p. 186
1940Nannippus peninsulatus Stirton p. 186
1940Nannippus phlegon Stirton p. 186
1941Neohipparion montezuma Olson and McGrew
1950Nannippus montezumae Lance
1950Nannippus peninsulatus Lance
1951Nannippus phlegon Hibbard
1966Nannippus phlegon Strain
1968Nannippus hesperides Mooser p. 10
1972Nannippus phlegon Skinner p. 117
1980Nannippus montezumae Dalquest and Mooser
1980Nannippus peninsulatus Dalquest and Mooser
1980Nannippus phlegon Kurten and Anderson p. 284
1980Nannippus phlegon MacFadden and Waldrop p. 4 figs. 1 - 14
1984Nannippus peninsulatus MacFadden p. 136 figs. 8, 89-91, 106-116, 148, 150
1993Nannippus montezumae Carranza-Castaneda
1998Nannippus peninsulatus MacFadden p. 549

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
OlfactoresJefferies 1991
subphylumVertebrata
Gnathostomata()
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
RankNameAuthor
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
orderPerissodactyla()
suborderLophodontomorpha
infraorderEuperissodactyla
Hippomorpha
superfamilyEquoidea
familyEquidae
subfamilyEquinaeSteinmann and Döderlein 1890
tribeHipparionini
genusNannippus(Matthew 1926)
speciespeninsulatus(Cope 1885)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
H. F. Osborn 1918 (Pliohippus minutus)(Cope) (1) Inferior molar narrowly hypsodont; (2) investment of cement thin; (3) metaconid and
metastylid appressed to hypoconid and protoconid, and spreading widely apart so as to be connected by an anteroposterior isthmus; (4) hypostylid also appressed to the hypoconid.
H. F. Osborn 1918 (Hipparion montezuma) (Leidy, p. 291) (1) Type an animal about the size of H. venustum and of H. (Hippodon) speciosus; (2) distinguished by differences in the enamel plications; (3) protocone greatly elongated anteroposteriorly, compressed transversely; (Gidley, 1907) (4) relatively small size and comparative great length of crown; (5) in general related to the H. whitneyi types; (6) plications confined to the metaloph and crochet region of the protoconule the latter double in prefossette and double opposite the protocone.
H. F. Osborn 1918(Cope, 1885, p. 150) (1) The type an animal of small size. (2) Crown of superior molar long, curved; (3) grinding face with anteroposterior diameter considerably exceeding transverse; (4) protocone large and narrow anteroposteriorly,ovalinsection,withinnerandouterbordersconvex; (5)anteriorandposteriorbordersofbothpre-andpost- fossettes doubly or triply plicate, prominent crochet and pli caballin folds; (6) prominent para- and mesostyles; (7) enamel plication resembling that of H. venuatum, which is of similar dimensions but differs in the protocone section. (Gidley, 1907) (8) Type agrees very closely with that of H. montezuma Leidy; (9) t9-e type a true molar, somewhat smaller than that of H. montezuma, which is-a premolar, the difference in size such as might exist between molar and premolar teeth of one individual; (10) localities from which the types were obtained not widely separated.
O. Mooser 1968 (Nannippus hesperides) Nannippus much larger than N. aztecus but distinctly smaller than the species of Neohipparion of the Ocote local fauna.
B. J. MacFadden and J. S. Waldrop 1980 (Nannippus phlegon)Small and gracile hipparion. No preorbital facial fossa. Elongate rostrum and symphysis. Teeth very hypsodont, even more so than N. minor, and moderately curved in the anteroposterior plane; thick covering of cement above alveolar border; upper cheek teeth with oval protocones and moderately complex plications; lower cheek teeth with moderately deep ectoflexids and widely separated metaconids and metastylids; ectoparastylid absent in lower cheek teeth. Limbs functionally one-toed and metapodials relatively long and gracile. Facet for trapezium on the medial (Ill) metacarpal absent.