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Minippus index

Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Equidae

Taxonomy
Orotherium index was named by Cope (1873). Its type specimen is AMNH 4680, a mandible, and it is a 3D body fossil.

It was synonymized subjectively with Orotherium uintanum by Cope (1875); it was recombined as Hyracotherium index by Cope (1877), Cope (1884), Wortman (1896), Matthew (1899), Gazin (1952), Gingerich (1989), Gingerich (1991) and MacFadden (1998); it was recombined as Eohippus index by King (1878), Hay (1902), Granger (1908), Hay (1930) and Stirton (1940); it was synonymized subjectively with Pliolophus uintanus by Cope (1886); it was synonymized subjectively with Hyracotherium angustidens by Lydekker (1886), Pavlow (1888) and Kitts (1956); it was synonymized subjectively with Hyracotherium vasacciense by Kitts (1956) and Gazin (1962); it was recombined as Minippus index by Froehlich (2002).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1873Orotherium index Cope p. 4
1877Hyracotherium index Cope
1877Orotherium loevii Cope
1878Eohippus index King
1884Hyracotherium index Cope
1884Pliolophus loevii Cope
1896Hyracotherium index Wortman pp. 9, 10
1899Hyracotherium index Matthew
1902Eohippus index Hay
1908Eohippus index Granger
1930Eohippus index Hay
1940Eohippus index Stirton
1952Hyracotherium index Gazin
1989Hyracotherium index Gingerich
1989Hyracotherium sulcatus Gingerich
1991Hyracotherium index Gingerich
1998Hyracotherium index MacFadden p. 542
2002Minippus index Froehlich pp. 162-163

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
OlfactoresJefferies 1991
subphylumVertebrata
Gnathostomata()
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
RankNameAuthor
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
orderPerissodactyla()
suborderLophodontomorpha
infraorderEuperissodactyla
Hippomorpha
superfamilyEquoidea
familyEquidae
genusMinippus
speciesindex()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
D. J. Froehlich 2002Small equids with a lower preultimate molar hypoconulid closely appressed against hypolophid (Character 95, 0 to 1), a buccal molar postcristid (Character 97, 1 to 0) and a strong pre-M3 hypoconulid (Character 98, 1 to 0). The group lacks the characters of the next more-derived equid clade, P4 posterior ridge moderate (Character 76, 0 to 1), lower premolar paralophid complex very short (Character 79, 1 to 0), and a rounded lower molar paracristid bend (Character 88, 1 to 0).