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Pliohippus fossulatus

Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Equidae

Taxonomy
Protohippus fossulatus was named by Cope (1893). It is a 3D body fossil.

It was recombined as Merychippus fossulatus by Hay (1902) and Trouessart (1905); it was synonymized subjectively with Pliohippus (Pliohippus) pachyops by Stirton (1940); it was synonymized subjectively with Pliohippus supremus by Webb (1969); it was recombined as Dinohippus fossulatus by Kelly and Lander (1988); it was synonymized subjectively with Pliohippus pernix by Hulbert (1989); it was recombined as Pliohippus fossulatus by Matthew (1899), Gidley (1903), Osborn (1918), Hay (1930), Dalquest and Hughes (1966), MacFadden (1984), Kelly (1995), MacFadden (1998) and Kelly (1998).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1893Protohippus fossulatus Cope p. 25
1899Pliohippus fossulatus Matthew
1902Merychippus fossulatus Hay
1903Pliohippus fossulatus Gidley
1905Merychippus fossulatus Trouessart
1907Protohippus fossulatus Gidley p. 914
1918Pliohippus fossulatus Osborn p. 156 figs. Plate 23.1,1a, 24.1. Text Figs. 124, 125
1930Pliohippus fossulatus Hay
1966Pliohippus fossulatus Dalquest and Hughes
1984Pliohippus fossulatus MacFadden
1988Dinohippus fossulatus Kelly and Lander
1995Pliohippus fossulatus Kelly p. 14
1998Pliohippus fossulatus Kelly
1998Pliohippus fossulatus MacFadden p. 550

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
RankNameAuthor
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
orderPerissodactyla()
suborderLophodontomorpha
infraorderEuperissodactyla
Hippomorpha
superfamilyEquoidea
familyEquidae
subfamilyEquinaeSteinmann and Döderlein 1890
tribeEquini
genusPliohippus
speciesfossulatus()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
H. F. Osborn 1918(Cope) (1) Size between that of Pliohippus pachyops and P. mirabilis. (2) No fossa immediately in front
of the orbit, but there is a narrow and deep maxillo-nasal fossa [lachrymal], the posterior extremity of which approaches nearertothesuperiorpartoftheorbitthananyother; (3)beneathitandimmediatelyabovethepenultimatemolartooth (m2) a small but well pronounced fossa [malar]; (4) immediately anterior to the infraorbital foramen is a wider and shallower fossa [maxillary]; (5) infraorbital foramen above anterior border of m1; (6) anterior border of orbit above posterior border of m3• (7) Grinding faces of the molar crowns wider than long; (8) protocone large and well fused, projecting more prominently inward than the hypocone, which is not distinct in any of the teeth; (9) enamel borders perfectly simple, with no loop between the protocone and hypocone. (Gidley, 1907, p. 915) (10) Its general skull characters more nearly approach those of Prowhippus perditus as that species is now understood, especially in the form and position of the lachrymal fossa, also in the presence of a deep depression on the upper surface of the skull in the median line directly between the orbits, as in P. perditus; (11) it also agrees with P. perditus in the unusual broadening of the nasals anteriorly; (12) the com- parative shortness of the preorbital region; (13) the deep constriction of the preorbital region immediately in front of the premolars. A distinction is (14) the presence of an incipient malar fossa, and the greater depth of the lachrymal fossa. (Osborn, 1918) (15) Grinding teeth deeply worn, all enamel foldings obliterated; (16) extreme transverse diameter due to the basal section of the crown; (17) protocone prominent, constricted; (18) hypocone region somewhat less prominent, unconstricted.