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Calippus martini

Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Equidae

Taxonomy
Calippus martini was named by Hesse (1936) [Type locality is actually Cragin Quarry [18105], not Beaver Quarry [18045]]. Its type specimen is UCMP 32814, a maxilla (Upper left dentition P2-M3,), and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Beaver Quarry, which is in a Clarendonian terrestrial horizon in Oklahoma.

It was recombined as Pliohippus martini by Johnston (1937), Green (1956), Macdonald (1960) and Forsten (1975); it was recombined as Pliohippus (Astrohippus) martini by Stirton (1940); it was recombined as Protohippus martini by Quinn (1955); it was recombined as Astrohippus martini by Webb (1969) and Schultz (1977); it was recombined as Calippus (Grammohippus) martini by Hulbert (1988) and Prado and Alberdi (1996).

Synonyms
  • Equus laparensis was named by Quinn (1955). Its type specimen is BEG 30896-195, a set of teeth (upper left premolar series), and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Buckner Ranch Site 1, which is in a Clarendonian terrestrial horizon in the Goliad Formation of Texas.

    It was synonymized subjectively with Pliohippus martini by Forsten (1975); it was synonymized subjectively with Calippus (Grammohippus) martini by Hulbert (1988); it was synonymized subjectively with Calippus martini by MacFadden (1998).
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1936Calippus martini Hesse p. 52 figs. 1, 2
1937Pliohippus martini Johnston
1940Pliohippus (Astrohippus) martini Stirton p. 190
1955Protohippus martini Quinn p. 17
1955Equus laparensis Quinn p. 58 figs. Pl. 14, Figs. 1 - 3
1956Pliohippus martini Green
1960Pliohippus martini Macdonald
1969Astrohippus martini Webb
1975Pliohippus martini Forsten
1977Astrohippus martini Schultz
1988Calippus (Grammohippus) martini Hulbert, Jr. p. 259 figs. 15A-15F
1996Calippus martini Dalquest et al.
1996Calippus (Grammohippus) martini Prado and Alberdi p. 676
1998Calippus martini Kelly
1998Calippus martini MacFadden p. 550

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
RankNameAuthor
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
orderPerissodactyla()
suborderLophodontomorpha
infraorderEuperissodactyla
Hippomorpha
superfamilyEquoidea
familyEquidae
subfamilyEquinaeSteinmann and Döderlein 1890
tribeEquini
genusCalippus()
speciesmartini

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
J. H. Quinn 1955Teeth more hypsodont with simpler enamel patterns than P. perditus; hypoconal groove closed to nearly the summit of the crowns.
J. H. Quinn 1955 (Equus laparensis)Upper teeth smaller than H. sellardsi, curvature similar, styles· less pronounced; fossettes large with pli proto- loph and pli hypoloph; protocones at- tached by long narrow commissure, elop.- gate, heeled anteri-0rly, grooved lingually, pointed posteriorly, oriented with long axis of tooth row; lower teeth with meta- conid, metastylid, and entoconid as in Recent Equus, parastylid and pli cabal- linid present; protoconid and hypoconid flattened and concave externally.
R. C. Hulbert 1988Largest described species of Calippus, with toothrow lengths of 125 to 140 mm and unworn molar crown height of about 57 mm. Metastylid poorly separated from metaconid by relatively shallow and rapidly retracting linguaflexid and entoflexid. Muzzle width about 45% of toothrow length.