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Protohippus parvulus

Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Equidae

Taxonomy
Equus parvulus was named by Marsh (1868). Its type specimen is Type consists of several individuals bearing the [YPM] numbers 11340 to 11345 and is a 3D body fossil.

It was recombined as Anchitherium parvulus by Leidy (1873) and Scott and Osborn (1890); it was recombined as Protohippus parvulus by Marsh (1874), Cope (1893), Matthew (1899), Gidley (1903), Osborn (1918) and Hay (1930); it was recombined as Mesohippus parvulus by Roger (1896); it was synonymized subjectively with Protohippus placidus by Trouessart (1898); it was recombined as Merychippus parvulus by Hay (1902), Trouessart (1905) and McGrew and Meade (1938); it was recombined as Parahippus parvulus by Gidley (1907); it was recombined as Nannippus parvulus by Stirton (1940); it was considered a nomen dubium by Macdonald (1992).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1868Equus parvulus Marsh
1873Anchitherium parvulus Leidy
1874Protohippus parvulus Marsh p. 251
1890Anchitherium parvulus Scott and Osborn p. 89
1893Protohippus parvulus Cope p. 25
1896Mesohippus parvulus Roger
1899Protohippus parvulus Matthew
1902Merychippus parvulus Hay
1903Protohippus parvulus Gidley p. 634
1905Merychippus parvulus Trouessart
1907Parahippus parvulus Gidley p. 885
1918Protohippus parvulus Osborn p. 130 figs. 104, 105
1930Protohippus parvulus Hay
1938Merychippus parvulus McGrew and Meade p. 201
1940Nannippus parvulus Stirton p. 186

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
OlfactoresJefferies 1991
subphylumVertebrata
Gnathostomata()
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
RankNameAuthor
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
orderPerissodactyla()
suborderLophodontomorpha
infraorderEuperissodactyla
Hippomorpha
superfamilyEquoidea
familyEquidae
subfamilyEquinaeSteinmann and Döderlein 1890
tribeEquini
genusProtohippus()
speciesparvulus()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
H. F. Osborn 1918(Matthew, 1913) As shown in the accompanying figures of the type specimen, the pes is generically indeterminate; it belongs either to Protohippus or to Hipparinn, probably to the former genus. The type includes a Mts. III of moderate length, approximately lacking the lateral facet for the cuneiform (a facet typically present in Pliohippus); the lateral metatarsals are rather heavy; the hoofs are of medium width; the navicular is low and broad; the ulna is coalesced suturally with the radius at the distal end, apparently also along the shaft. (Osborn, 1918) The discovery by Troxell (1916) of the pes of Protohippus (see Fig. 116a) tends to confirm the reference of this type to Protohippus, as a species not remote in size from the type of P. placidua Leidy.