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Protorohippus venticolum

Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Equidae

Taxonomy
Eohippus venticolus was named by Cope (1881). Its type specimen is AMNH 4832, a partial skeleton, and it is a 3D body fossil.

It was recombined as Hyracotherium venticolum by Cope (1881) and Gingerich (1991); it was recombined as Protorohippus venticolus by Wortman (1896), Matthew (1899), Hay (1902), Trouessart (1905) and Froehlich (1999); it was synonymized subjectively with Hyracotherium vasacciense by Kitts (1956) and Robinson (1966); it was recombined as Protorohippus venticolum by Froehlich (2002).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1881Eohippus venticolus Cope p. 198
1881Hyracotherium venticolum Cope p. 198
1896Protorohippus venticolus Wortman p. 105
1899Protorohippus venticolus Matthew
1902Protorohippus venticolus Hay
1905Eohippus venticolus Stehlin
1905Protorohippus venticolus Trouessart
1908Eohippus venticolus Granger
1909Eohippus venticolus Matthew
1930Eohippus venticolus Hay
1940Eohippus venticolus Stirton
1991Hyracotherium venticolum Gingerich
1999Protorohippus venticolus Froehlich
2002Protorohippus venticolum Froehlich p. 180

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
RankNameAuthor
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
orderPerissodactyla()
suborderLophodontomorpha
infraorderEuperissodactyla
Hippomorpha
superfamilyEquoidea
familyEquidae
genusProtorohippus
speciesventicolum()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
D. J. Froehlich 2002This taxon has no identified unambiguous autapomorphies in the analysis. It is diagnosed by its phylogenetic position. It has the following synapomorphies: P4 paraconule significantly anterior of line between paracone and protocone (Character 32, 0 to 1), upper molar mesostyle small (Character 46, 0 to 1), upper molar ectoloph moderately lophoid (Character 52, 0 to 1), upper molar protoloph sub-lophoid (Character 53, 0 to 1), P3 hypoconid large (Character 72, 0 to 1), lower molar cristid obliqua anterior end slightly lingual (Character 80, 2 to 1), lower molar protolophid incipiently lophoid (Character 89, 1 to 2), lower molar hypolophid straight (Character 92, 1 to 0), M3 hypolophid strong (Character 104, 1 to 2), and astra- galar trochlea inclined >10° (Character 121, 1 to 2) (these are all synapomorphies of the AMNH 4832 and all more-derived equids clade). The taxon lacks the character that diagnoses the next more-derived clade: astragalus that has tall trochlea and medial trochlea with no groove, medial trochlea connects fully with distal astragalo-navicular table (Character 120, 0 to 1).