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Sphenophalos nevadanus

Mammalia - Artiodactyla - Antilocapridae

Taxonomy
Sphenophalos nevadanus was named by Merriam (1909) [genotype]. Its type specimen is UCMP 11887, a partial skull (the basal portion of the left horn witiY a portion of the frontal extending forward over the orbit, and backward to form a small portion of the brain case), and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Thousand Creek, which is in a Hemphillian terrestrial horizon in Nevada. It is the type species of Sphenophalos.

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1909Sphenophalos nevadanus Merriam p. 325 fig. 7

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
RankNameAuthor
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
orderArtiodactyla()
Ruminantiamorpha
Ruminantia(Scopoli 1777)
Pecora()
familyAntilocapridaeOwen 1841
subfamilyAntilocaprinaeBrooke 1876
genusSphenophalos
speciesnevadanus

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
J. C. Merriam 1909Frontals not cavernom< at the base of the horns. Horns situated o.n the upper posterior region of the orbits, sloping back- ward, slightly outward, and tilted upward at an angle between twenty-five and thirty degrees from the plane of the frontals above the orbits. Horn cores flattened in a plane extending backward and inward from the orbits. A short distance above the base the horn cores flare or widen slightly in the direction of greatest diameter in cross-section. Outer anterior edge of the horn core arising over the upper posterior region of the orbit, and swinging backward with a suggestion of a twist. Surface of the horn core comparatively smooth, with a few pits or irregu- larities. Texture of the outer portion of the born core solid. Supraorbital foramina present in front of the middle of the antero-medial side of the base of the horn cores.