|Basic info||Taxonomic history||Classification||Relationships|
|Morphology||Ecology and taphonomy||External Literature Search||Age range and collections|
Mammalia - Artiodactyla - Merycoidodontidae
It was considered a nomen nudum by Cope (1884); it was considered a nomen dubium by Sinclair (1924); it was considered a nomen vanum by Lander (1998).
It was assigned to Agriochoeridae by Lambe (1908); to Merycoidodontidae by Leidy (1848), Thorpe (1937), Scott (1940), Galbreath (1953), Toohey (1959) and Stevens and Stevens (1996); and to Merycoidodontinae by Stevens and Stevens (2007).
|Year||Name and author|
|1884||Oreodon Cope p. 505|
|1887||Eucrotaphus (Oreodon) Scott and Osborn p. 155|
|1891||Oreodon Cope p. 21|
|1917||Oreodon Barbour and Cook|
|1940||Merycoidodon Scott p. 652 figs. Plates LXIX, LXX, LXXI, LXXIII|
|1949||Promesoreodon Schultz and Falkenbach p. 152 figs. 21-25|
|1954||Subdesmatochoerus Schultz and Falkenbach p. 217 figs. 18 - 21|
|1954||Prodesmatochoerus Schultz and Falkenbach p. 225 figs. 18, 22, 24 - 25|
|1968||Blickohyus Schultz and Falkenbach|
|1968||Genetochoerus Schultz and Falkenbach|
|1968||Otionohyus Schultz and Falkenbach|
|1968||Paramerycoidodon Schultz and Falkenbach|
|1996||Merycoidodon Stevens and Stevens|
|2007||Merycoidodon Stevens and Stevens p. 158|
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If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.
|C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1949 (Promesoreodon)||SKULL:Small, decidedly smaller than in any known species of Mesoreodon,ranging in basal length from 185 to 194 mm., in width from 112 to 132 mm.; low and wide; supraoc- cipital produced posteriorly; lateral wings not widely spread; exoccipital foramina pre- sent; sagittal crest light and high; brain case well inflated; frontals wide; nasals moder- ately robust; anterior nasal-maxilla contact above P1 ; malar moderately deep below the orbit; zygomatic arch light, with inward notch posterior of the orbit; infraorbital foramen above P 8 ; lacrimal fossa of moderate size, moderately deep (deeper than in examples of Mesoreodon);slight depression on side of face above PLP 2 ; muzzle robust; occipital con- dyles medium sized; paroccipital process wide at base; bulla well inflated and high; post- glenoid process from moderately robust to robust, peg-like in outline; posterior palate projecting slightly beyond M1•
MANDIBLE:Light; ramus increasing in depth rapidly posteriorly; inferior border of ramus straight with rapid downward curve below anterior of M1 ; ascending ramus high.
DENTITION: Lighter and more brachyodont than in Mesoreodon.
LIMBS: Short and light.
|C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1954 (Prodesmatochoerus)||SKULL: Medium size; basal length ranging from 155 to 184 mm., width from 80 to 100 mm.; dolichocephalic; supraoccipital high and narrow, lateral wings not widely spread, produced posteriorly beyond occipital condyles; exoccipital foramina small and oblong in outline (no vacuities in prominent pit as in Subdesmatochoerus); sagittal crest moderately high and light; brain case elongated; frontals narrow; nasals long and narrow, with pointed to rounded posterior border and with slight anterior retraction; anterior nasal- maxilla contact above C/; orbits rounded, moderately large, looking mostly outward; zygomatic arch with abrupt posterior rise; malar moderately deep below the orbit, deepest point below middle of orbit; infra- orbital foramen above anterior portion of P3 ; lacrimal fossa large and moderately deep; small facial depression in area above PLP 3 ; muzzle narrow; premaxillae touching but not definitely fused; occipital condyles of medium size, widely spaced; paroccipital process with excavated external surface; bulla very small (minute in contrast to those of Subdesmatochoerus); postglenoid process light, wide laterally, with moderately steep slope on external border; glenoid surface arched; posterior palate projecting posteriorly for slight distance beyond M3.
MANDIBLE: Medium size; ramus shallow; postsymphysis in region below P 8 ; inferior border with gradual downward curve below and posterior to M3; ascending ramus moderately high, robust posterior border; condyle light, set at less than right angle to axis of dentition, external border farther forward and slightly higher than internal border.
DENTITION: Brachyodont, approximately equal to examples of Subdesmatochoerus, definitely more brachyodont than in Desma- tochoerus; dental series shorter than in the latter genus, approximately equal to those of S. socialis, and long in relation to length of skull; inferior and superior premolars rather large, not crowded, set approximately parallel to alveolar border; external styles of superior molars moderately prominent; C/ and P1 varying in size from comparatively small to large (similar to those of Merychyus); PLP 8 each usually with weak anterior intermediate crest; P4 may or may not have an external anterior pit; Pa with weak posterior intermediate crest.
LIMBS: Moderate length; smaller and lighter than in Subdesmatochoerus.
|C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1954 (Subdesmatochoerus)||SKULL: Small to medium size; basal length ranging from 175 to 215 mm., width from 94 to 125 mm.; dolichocephalic to submesocephalic; supraoccipital wings not widely spread, produced posteriorly beyond the occipital condyles; exoccipital vacuities present; sagittal crest moderately high; brain case elongated; frontals narrow; nasals with noticeable tapering posteriorly, also anteriorly, slight anterior retraction; anterior nasal-maxilla contact above P 1 ; orbits slightly oval vertically, with long axis sloping upward anteroposteriorly; zygomatic arch with moderately abrupt rise posteriorly from below the orbit, with inward notch posterior to orbit; squamosal moderately light; malar moder- ately deep below the orbit; infraorbital foramen above pa; lacrimal fossa moderately large and deep; slight facial depression in area above P1 to midline of pa (anterior to infraorbital foramen); muzzle narrow; premaxillae touching, but not definitely fused; occipital condyles of medium size; paroccipital process wide at base, with noticeable external notch, triangular in outline at contact with bulla; bulla inflated, laterally compressed; postglenoid process robust, with tendency to be wide laterally as it is antero-posteriorly, steep slope to external border; posterior palate even with last lobe of M3 to slightly posterior of M 8.
MANDIBLE: Medium size; postsymphysis in region below P 2 and Pa; inferior border of ramus parallel to alveolar border, with gradual downward curve posterior to Ma; ascending ramus moderately high, posterior border robust; condyle set at less than right angle to axis of dentition, with external border of condyle farther forward and higher than internal border.
DENTITION: Brachyodont, more so than in examples of Desmatochoerus; series longer than examples of Prodesmatochoerus (with exception of those of P. socialis dakotensis) and shorter than in Desmatochoerus; C/ and P1moderately large; /C two to three times the size of Ia; premolars large, usually crowded, p1-p 2 and P2 set at slight angle to alveolar border; external styles of superior molars prominent; p1-ps each with anterior intermediate crest; P 8 with posterior intermediate crest.
LIMBS: Tendency to be slightly longer than examples of Prodesmatochoerus meekae; lighter and shorter than examples of Desmatochoerus and D. (Paradesmatochoerus).