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Promerycochoerus superbus

Mammalia - Artiodactyla - Merycoidodontidae

Taxonomy
Oreodon superbus was named by Leidy (1870). It is a 3D body fossil. It is the type species of Promerycochoerus.

It was recombined as Eporeodon superbus by Marsh (1875); it was recombined as Eucrotaphus superbus by Cope (1880); it was recombined as Merycochoerus superbus by Cope (1884) and Lander (1998); it was recombined as Paracotylops superbus by Matthew (1901); it was recombined as Promerycochoerus superbus by Douglass (1901), Douglass (1906), Loomis (1920), Thorpe (1921), Thorpe (1924), Thorpe (1937), Schultz and Falkenbach (1949), Fremd (1994), Stevens and Stevens (2007) and Strganac (2011).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1870Oreodon superbus Leidy
1875Eporeodon superbus Marsh p. 250
1876Merycochoerus temporalis Bettany
1880Eucrotaphus superbus Cope
1884Merycochoerus superbus Cope p. 522
1901Promerycochoerus superbus Douglass
1901Paracotylops superbus Matthew
1906Promerycochoerus superbus Douglass p. 566
1920Promerycochoerus superbus Loomis
1921Promerycochoerus superbus Thorpe p. 220
1921Promerycochoerus lulli Thorpe p. 231 figs. 1A, B
1921Promerycochoerus microcephalus Thorpe p. 239 figs. 5A, B
1924Promerycochoerus superbus Thorpe
1937Promerycochoerus superbus Thorpe
1949Promerycochoerus superbus Schultz and Falkenbach p. 107 figs. 2-5, 11, 12, 25, 26
1954Superdesmatochoerus lulli Schultz and Falkenbach p. 215 figs. 16-18, 23, 25
1954Superdesmatochoerus microcephalus Schultz and Falkenbach p. 215 figs. 16 - 17
1994Promerycochoerus superbus Fremd
1998Merycochoerus superbus Lander
2007Promerycochoerus superbus Stevens and Stevens p. 160
2011Promerycochoerus superbus Strganac p. 32

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
OlfactoresJefferies 1991
subphylumVertebrata
Gnathostomata()
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
RankNameAuthor
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
orderArtiodactyla()
suborderTylopoda()
superfamilyOreodontoidea
familyMerycoidodontidaeThorpe 1923
subfamilyPromerycochoerinae
genusPromerycochoerus
speciessuperbus(Leidy 1870)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
M. R. Thorpe 1921 (Promerycochoerus lulli)Lacrymal fossæ very deep and large; skull long and slender; face narrow; orbits look chiefly outward, but slightly forward and not upward; infra-orbital foramina small and located above p4; sagittal crest very high and thin above posterior part of cranium, posteriorly curving over along the transverse crests, which are thin and close together; malar below orbit very thin but wide, posterior part of zygoma vertical, with crest rising nearly to the level of the squamous suture, and outer border rounded; masseteric fossre shallow; face deep; muzzle square; inferior incisors crowded; bullre large, extending to level of postglenoid processes; paramastoid and postglenoid processes very nearly close auricular fossa below; zygomatic arches originate above anterior portion of M2, with convexity extending forward for short distance; cranium parallel-sided up to squamous suture, in front of which is marked
groove; occiput above foramen magnum very narrow and convex, with exceedingly deep lateral fossæ.
M. R. Thorpe 1921 (Promerycochoerus microcephalus)Slmll long and narrow; frontals markedly decurved above orbits; extremely small brain chamber; high narrow sagittal crest; frontal ridges continued separate and nearly parallel to a position above the condyles before their junction; squamous portion of zygoma extends but slightly above squamous suture; malar below orbit very wide and heavy, with its inferior edge strongly convex downward; nasals extend nearly to incisive alveoli; lacrymal fossa well marked, moderately deep; orbit triallgular, with apex downward and forward; very deep lateral fossm above condyles; no internal cingulum on molars; bullffi large and extending below postglenoid processes; infra-orbital foramen above P4.
C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1949SKULL:Approximate size of P. carrikeri; smaller than examples of P. macrostegus; supraoccipital wings moderately spread, greatly produced posterior to the occipital condyles; sagittal crest moderately long, high, and sloping down posteriorly; frontals moderately wide; nasal long and rounded laterally, but not noticeably retracted; anterior nasal-maxilla contact P 1 ; zygomatic arch with straight internal posterior border (not hooked as in P. carrikeri), and extending posteriorly beyond the region above the postglenoid process, not to the degree found in examples of P. carrikeri, but more so than in examples of P. (Pseudopromerycochoerus); infraorbital foramen above re- gion of posterior portion of P'; lacrimal fossa larger and deeper than in P. carrikeri,· slight facial depression above premolar region; muzzle joined for short distance; occipital condyles of moderate size; paroccipital process wide at base with slight forward twist; bulla well inflated, high and suboval in outline, extending downward beyond the inferior border of the postglenoid process; postglenoid process robust and high; posterior palate projecting posteriorly beyond M3 (not to the extent found in examples of P. superbus chelydra).
MANDIBLE:Moderately robust; ramus of same depth until reaching a point below Ma; inferior border straight to a point below the posterior of Ma, then curving gradually downward.
DENTITION:Equal to smaller examples of P. carrikeri; average smaller than average examples of P. carrikeri or P. latidens.
C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1954 (Superdesmatochoerus lulli)SKULL: Larger than examples of S. microcephalus; anterior nasal-maxilla contact above P 1 ; infraorbital foramen above posterior portion of P4.
MANDIBLE: Larger than examples of S. microcephalus; postsymphysis below P3.
DENTITION: Series longer than examples of S. microcephalus.
LIMBS: Within the size range of Megoreodon. (Known from tentatively referred specimen only.)
C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1954 (Superdesmatochoerus microcephalus)SKULL: Smaller than examples of S. lulli; brain case slightly smaller for size of skull than in that species; anterior nasal-maxilla contact above area posterior to P 1 ; infraorbital foramen above posterior portion of pa to posterior portion of P 4 ; lacrimal fossa smaller than in S. lulli.
MANDIBLE: Smaller than examples of S. lulli; postsymphysis below Pa; inferior border of ramus slightly more arched than last-mentioned species.
DENTITION: Similar to examples of S.lulli except for smaller size of series.
LIMBS:(Unknown).