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Bootherium bombifrons

Mammalia - Artiodactyla - Bovidae

Taxonomy
Bos bombifrons was named by Harlan (1825).

It was recombined as Ovibos bombifrons by Leidy (1852); it was recombined as Bootherium bombifrons by Leidy (1852), Osgood (1905), Hay (1914), Peterson (1926), Frick (1937), Kurten and Anderson (1980) and Kirkland et al. (1997).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1825Bos bombifrons Harlan
1852Bootherium bombifrons Leidy
1852Bootherium cavifrons Leidy
1852Ovibos bombifrons Leidy
1852Ovibos cavifrons Leidy
1895Bison appalachicolus Rhoads
1897Ovibos appalachicolus Rhaods
1905Bootherium bombifrons Osgood
1905Scaphoceros cavifrons Osgood
1905Scaphoceros tyrelli Osgood
1905Symbos cavifrons Osgood
1905Symbos tyrelli Osgood
1906Liops zuniensis Gidley p. 166 figs. 1 - 3
1907Gidleya zuniensis Cossmann
1908Symbos australis Brown
1908Symbos tyrelli Gidley
1908Bootherium sargenti Gidley p. 683
1908Symbos tyrelli Gilmore
1912Symbos cavifrons Hay
1913Symbos cavifrons Allen
1914Bootherium bombifrons Hay
1914Symbos cavifrons Hay
1914Symbos tyrelli Hay
1915Bootherium nivicolens Hay p. 523
1915Bootherium sargenti Hay p. 525
1921Symbos promptus Hay p. 125 figs. Plate 6, figs. 9-10; plate S, figs. 1-6.
1923Ovibos appalachicolus Hay
1926Bootherium bombifrons Peterson
1930Symbos cavifrons Hay
1931Symbos cavifrons Barbour
1934Symbos convexifrons Barbour
1937Bootherium bombifrons Frick
1937Ovibos appalachicolus Frick
1937Ovibos giganteus Frick
1937Ovibos zuniensis Frick
1937Symbos cavifrons Frick
1937Symbos tyrelli Frick
1942Bootherium brazosis Hesse
1966Bootherium appalachicolus Ray
1980Symbos cavifrons Kurten and Anderson p. 332
1980Bootherium bombifrons Kurten and Anderson p. 334
1987Symbos cavifrons Nelson and Madsen, Jr. p. 242
1997Bootherium bombifrons Kirkland, Jr. et al. p. 114

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
OlfactoresJefferies 1991
subphylumVertebrata
Gnathostomata()
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
RankNameAuthor
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
orderArtiodactyla()
Ruminantiamorpha
Ruminantia(Scopoli 1777)
Pecora()
familyBovidae
subfamilyCaprinae
genusBootheriumHarlan 1825
speciesbombifrons(Harlan 1825)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
J. W. Gidley 1908 (Bootherium sargenti)Size about two-thirds that of Ovibos moschatus, somewhat larger than B. bombifrons; horn-cores comparatively large, well rounded, long and slender; horn-cores at base horizontally directed at right angles to the skull as in Plate LIX, fig. a, but curving downward and forward in graceful semi-spirals, ending in slender anteriorly directed tips (see Plate LIX, fig. b) ; orbits comparatirnly large, depressed below the arching frontals , with thin gently shelving borders, not tubular as in Ovibos. In the general form and contour of the skull and horn-cores this species, together with B. bombifrons,is strikingly different from other knovm species of the Ovibovinae
O. P. Hay 1915 (Bootherium nivicolens)A Pleistocene species of Boötherium which has the exostoses of the horn-cores slightly encroaching on the forehead; horn cores directed strongly outward, only slightly downward and forward.
O. P. Hay 1921 (Symbos promptus)Upper molars with the external styles less strongly developed than in S. cavifrons; the fossettes less angular.