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Hypsiops brachymelis

Mammalia - Ungulata - Merycoidodontidae

Taxonomy
Ticholeptus brachymelis was named by Douglass (1907). Its type specimen is AMNH 9731, a partial skeleton (A nearly complete skull with the mandible, the cervical and lumbar vertebrae, nine or ten dorsal vertebrae part of which are incomplete, and the greater portion), and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is North Boulder Valley, which is in a Harrisonian terrestrial horizon in the Renova Formation of Montana. It is the type species of Hypsiops.

It was recombined as Hypsiops brachymelis by Schultz and Falkenbach (1950); it was synonymized subjectively with Hypsiops breviceps by Lander (1998) and Tabrum and Nichols (2001).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1907Ticholeptus brachymelis Douglass p. 815 figs. 6, 7
1923Ticholeptus petersoni Loomis
1937Ticholeptus brachymelis Thorpe p. 189 figs. Fig. 138; PI. XXIX, figs. 3-4
1937Ticholeptus petersoni Thorpe p. 193 figs. Figs. 5, 141; PL XLVII, fig. 2
1950Hypsiops brachymelis Schultz and Falkenbach p. 116 figs. 4-6, 11, 13-15

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
RankNameAuthor
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
orderUngulata(Linnaeus 1766)
orderArtiodactyla()
familyMerycoidodontidae
subfamilyMerycochoerinae
genusHypsiops
speciesbrachymelis()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
E. Douglass 1907Skull high in proportion to length. Greatest height to greatest length, 157mm.: 257mm. = 61: 100 or approximately 3/5 Forehead only moderately broad; upper anteroposterior contour of skull nearly straight; sagittal crest short and not high; orbit small; zygomatic arches deep under the orbit, ascending posteriorly; squamosal portion of arch not heavy; nasals shortened; horizontal ramus of mandible moderately deep,uniform in height from p3 to m3; premolar teeth not long or high; molars moderately hypsodont; proportion of length of upper premolar to molar series= 48mm.: 60mm.= 80:100= 4/5,;lower molar to premolar series=49 mm.: 64 mm. = 76.5 :100; limbs and feet short. The premaxillaries are coossified for a distance of 12cm. The upper portion of the anterior narial opening is large and broadly rounded, the borders only moderately steep. The narials are abbreviated. The infra orbital foramen opens above the anterior portion of p-4. The malomaxillary ridge is heavy and the lachrymal pit deep. The malar is deep beneath the orbits and ascends backward. The squamosal portion of the zygomatic arch is heavy. The forehead is not extremely broad, neither is the occiput. The exoccipitals and the paroccipital processes are moderately expanded laterally. The internal portions of the latter, behind the tympanic bullae,are thickened antero-posteriorly. The bullae are quite large. The external auditory meatus is a long, straight tube directed upward more than outward or backward. The angle of the mandible is large but does not extend very much below the lower border of the horizontal ramus. The masseteric fossa is deep.
C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1950SKULL: Larger than those of Hypsiops breviceps and H. luskensis, slightly larger than average examples of H. brachymelis petersoni, somewhat smaller and less massive than those of H. johndayensis; mesocephalic; nasals retracted anteriorly to area above anterior of P 1 ; anterior nasal-maxilla contact above P 2 ; posterior portion of arch somewhat U-shaped in outline from side view, with sharp rise of inferior border; posterior border of arch extending posteriorly to anterior border of postglenoid process; malar deep below orbit; infraorbital foramen above anterior border of P4•
MANDIBLE:Same size comparisons as in skull; postsymphysis below midline of Pa.
DENTITION:C/ large; /C approximately twice the size of Ia, spatulate shape in outline; premolars crowded (worn in holotype, but suggesting presence of anterior intermediate crest on P2 and P3) ; P3 with suggestion of posterior intermediate crest.
LIMBS: Slightly longer than known examples of other species of genus (H. johndayensis known from fragmentary examples only).