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Arctodus simus (giant short-faced bear)

Mammalia - Carnivora - Ursidae

Taxonomy
Arctotherium simum was named by Cope (1879) [Holotype not figured in original description; later figured in E. D. Cope (1891: plate 21) American Naturalist 25:997-999.]. Its type specimen is UCMP V-17754, a skull (skull), and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Potter Creek Cave, which is in a Pleistocene cave horizon in California.

It was recombined as Tremarctotherium simum by Kraglievich (1926), Schultz (1938), Rinker (1949), Hibbard (1955) and Hibbard (1955); it was recombined as Arctodus simus by Kurten (1967), Kurten and Anderson (1980), Emslie and Czaplewski (1985), Carranza-Castaneda and Miller (1987), Gillette and Madsen (1992), Richards and Turnbull (1995), Richards et al. (1996) and Schubert and Kaufmann (2003).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1879Arctotherium simum Cope
1911Arctotherium yukonense Lambe p. 24
1911Arctotherium californicum Merriam p. 165 figs. 1 - 3
1916Dinarctotherium merriami Barbour p. 349
1926Tremarctotherium californicum Kraglievich
1926Tremarctotherium simum Kraglievich
1926Tremarctotherium yukonense Kraglievich
1938Tremarctotherium simum Schultz
1938Tremarctotherium yukonense Schultz
1949Tremarctotherium simum Rinker
1955Tremarctotherium simum Hibbard p. 51
1967Arctodus simus Kurten
1980Arctodus simus Kurten and Anderson p. 180
1985Arctodus simus Emslie and Czaplewski p. 3
1987Arctodus simus Carranza-Castaneda and Miller p. 340
1992Arctodus simus Gillette and Madsen p. 107
1995Arctodus simus Richards and Turnbull p. 2
1995Arctodus simus yukonensis Richards and Turnbull p. 2
1996Arctodus simus Richards et al.
2003Arctodus simus Schubert and Kaufmann p. 104

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
RankNameAuthor
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
Laurasiatheria
Scrotifera
Ferae()
CarnivoramorphaWyss and Flynn 1993
CarnivoraformesFlynn et al.
orderCarnivoraBowditch 1821
superfamilyArctoideaFlower 1869
Ursida
superfamilyUrsoideaFischer de Waldheim 1817
familyUrsidaeGray 1825
subfamilyTremarctinaeMerriam and Stock 1925
genusArctodus
speciessimus()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
Cope 1879In dimensions the skull equals that of the grizzly bear, but it is very differently proportioned. The muzzle is much shorter, and is wide, and descends obliquely downwards from the very convex frontal region. It wants the large postorbital processes of the grizzly, but has the tuberosities of the polar bear (U. maritimus), which it also resembles in the convexity of the front. Sagittal crest well developed. Three (one median and posterior) incisive foramina: three external infraorbital foramina. The teeth are large, and the series presents the peculiarity of being without diastema. The crowns of the premolars are not preserved, but if there were not three premolars, the second tooth has two well developed roots. First true molar with but two external and one internal tubercle. The absence of diastema renders it necessary to separate this bear from the true Ursi, and I propose to regard it, provisionally, as a species of Arctotherium Gerv.