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Xenicohippus craspedotum

Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Equidae

Taxonomy
Hyracotherium craspedotum was named by Cope (1880). Its type specimen is AMNH 4830, a mandible (left and right mandible fragments with right M1–M3 and left P4–M1), and it is a 3D body fossil.

It was recombined as Eohippus craspedotus by Hay (1902), Granger (1908), Hay (1930) and Stirton (1940); it was synonymized subjectively with Hyracotherium tapirinus by Gingerich (1981); it was synonymized subjectively with Hyracotherium major by Stucky (1984); it was recombined as Xenicohippus craspedotum by Froehlich (1999) and Froehlich (2002).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1880Hyracotherium craspedotum Cope p. 747
1896Hyracotherium craspedotum Wortman
1902Eohippus craspedotus Hay
1908Eohippus craspedotus Granger
1930Eohippus craspedotus Hay
1940Eohippus craspedotus Stirton
1991Hyracotherium craspedotum Gingerich
1999Xenicohippus craspedotum Froehlich
2002Xenicohippus craspedotum Froehlich p. 173

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
OlfactoresJefferies 1991
subphylumVertebrata
Gnathostomata()
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
RankNameAuthor
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
orderPerissodactyla()
suborderLophodontomorpha
infraorderEuperissodactyla
Hippomorpha
superfamilyEquoidea
familyEquidae
genusXenicohippus
speciescraspedotum()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
D. J. Froehlich 2002This taxon has a total of five identified autapomorphies: P3 paraconule posterior (Character 24, 1 to 0), cristid obliqua anterior termination slightly lingual (Character 80, 2 to 1), lower molar hypolophid straight (Character 92, 1 to 0), M3 hypolophid weak (Character 104, 1 to 0), and Cuboid/Metatarsal III contact present (Character 124, 0 to 1), but lacks the diagnostic characters of more-derived Xenicohippus: P2 large and relatively blade-like (Character 68, 0 to 1), P3 > 20% smaller than M1 linear dimensions (Character 71, 0 to 1), P4 entoconid always present (Character 75, 1 to 2), and lower molar paracristid a 30° to long axis of tooth (Character 87, 1 to 2). The large size of Xenicohippus craspedotum also serves to diagnose this taxon, although size was not included as a character in this analysis.