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Polacanthus

Reptilia - Nodosauridae

Taxonomy
Polacanthus was named by Fox (1866) [Name attributed to Owen by the author]. It is the type genus of Polacanthinae, Polacanthidae. It was considered monophyletic by Vickaryous et al. (2004).

It was synonymized subjectively with Hylaeosaurus by Coombs (1978), Coombs (1978), Galton (1983) and Tumanova (1987); it was considered a nomen dubium by Galton and Ayyasami (2017).

It was assigned to Dinosauria by Fox (1866) and Cope (1870); to Stegosauria by Dollo (1889); to Scelidosauria by Seeley (1892); to Scelidosauridae by Huxley (1870), Marsh (1880), Sauvage (1882), Dollo (1884), Marsh (1884), Marsh (1885), Lydekker (1888), Zittel (1890), Marsh (1896) and Lucas (1902); to Omosauridae by Huene (1909); to Acanthopholididae by Nopcsa (1902) and Nopcsa (1915); to Acanthopholidae by Lull (1924); to Ankylosaurinae by Nopcsa (1929); to Ankylosauridae by Nopsca (1928), Maleev (1954) and Maleev (1956); to Stegosauridae by von Zittel (1911), Tornier (1913), Joleaud (1922) and Delair (1973); to Polacanthidae by Ford (2000), Carpenter (2001) and Kilbourne and Carpenter (2005); to Ankylosauria by Vickaryous et al. (2004) and Gasulla et al. (2011); to Polacanthinae by Carpenter et al. (1996), Vickaryous and Ryan (1997), Kirkland (1998), Blows (2001), Blows (2001), Pereda Suberbiola and Galton (2001), Kirkland and Loewen (2011) and Kirkland et al. (2013); and to Nodosauridae by Wieland (1911), Hennig (1915), Lull (1921), Nopcsa (1928), Swinton (1936), Romer (1956), Tatarinov (1964), Kuhn (1964), Romer (1966), Swinton (1970), Sereno (1986), Blows (1987), Pereda-Suberbiola (1994), Coombs and Deméré (1996), Blows (1996), Pereda Suberbiola and Galton (1997), Knoll et al. (1998), Blows (1998), Pereda Suberbiola et al. (1999), Coria and Salgado (2001), Garcia and Pereda-Suberbiola (2003) and Han et al. (2014).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1866Polacanthus Fox p. 56
1870Polyacanthus Cope p. 90
1870Polacanthus Huxley p. 34
1880Polacanthus Marsh
1882Polacanthus Sauvage p. 35
1884Polacanthus Dollo p. 298
1884Polacanthus Marsh p. 68
1885Polacanthus Marsh p. 764
1888Polacanthus Lydekker p. 189
1889Polacanthus Dollo p. 678
1890Polacanthus Zittel p. 744
1892Polacanthus Seeley
1896Polacanthus Marsh p. 243
1897Euacanthus Owen p. 23
1902Polacanthus Lucas p. 435
1902Polacanthus Nopcsa p. 101
1909Polacanthus Huene p. 17
1911Polacanthus Wieland p. 117
1911Polacanthus von Zittel p. 294
1913Polacanthus Tornier p. 373
1915Polacanthus Hennig p. 12
1915Polacanthus Nopcsa p. 13
1921Polacanthus Lull p. 123
1922Polacanthus Joleaud p. 64
1924Polacanthus Lull p. 243
1928Polacanthus Nopcsa p. 185
1928Polacanthus Nopsca p. 73
1929Polacanthus Nopcsa p. 70
1936Polacanthus Swinton p. 218
1954Polacanthus Maleev
1956Polacanthus Maleev
1956Polacanthus Romer p. 636
1964Polacanthus Kuhn p. 51
1964Polacanthus Tatarinov p. 576
1966Polacanthus Romer p. 370
1970Polacanthus Swinton p. 245
1973Polacanthus Delair p. 6
1986Polacanthus Sereno
1987Polacanthus Blows p. 558
1994Polacanthus Pereda-Suberbiola p. 136
1996Polacanthus Blows p. 671
1996Polacanthus Carpenter et al. p. 25A
1996Polacanthus Coombs, Jr. and Deméré p. 319
1997Polacanthus Pereda Suberbiola and Galton p. 213
1997Polacanthus Vickaryous and Ryan p. 491
1998Polacanthus Blows p. 32
1998Polacanthus Kirkland p. 273 fig. 3
1998Polacanthus Knoll et al. p. 62
1999Polacanthus Pereda Suberbiola et al. p. 271
2000Polacanthus Ford p. 174
2001Polacanthus Blows p. 139
2001Polacanthus Carpenter p. 457
2001Polacanthus Coria and Salgado p. 163
2001Polacanthus Pereda Suberbiola and Galton p. 201
2003Polacanthus Garcia and Pereda-Suberbiola p. 161
2004Polacanthus Vickaryous et al. p. 367
2005Polacanthus Kilbourne and Carpenter p. 156
2011Polacanthus Gasulla et al. p. 511
2011Polacanthus Kirkland and Loewen p. 5
2013Polacanthus Kirkland et al. p. 5
2014Polacanthus Han et al. p. 14 fig. 11

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
OlfactoresJefferies 1991
subphylumVertebrata
Gnathostomata()
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
RankNameAuthor
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Ornithischia()
Genasauria
Thyreophora()
Ankylosauria()
familyNodosauridae
genusPolacanthus

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available