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Psittacosaurus mongoliensis

Reptilia - Psittacosauridae

Taxonomy
Psittacosaurus mongoliensis was named by Osborn (1923). Its type specimen is AMNH 6254, a skeleton, and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Red Mesa, Artsa Bogdo (AMNH Loc. 11494), which is in a Cretaceous terrestrial horizon in the Öösh Formation of Mongolia.

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1923Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Osborn p. 2
1923Protiguanodon mongoliense Osborn p. 6
1924Protiguanodon mongoliense Osborn
1924Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Osborn
1929Protiguanodon mongoliense Jaekel p. 226 fig. 17
1930Protiguanodon mongoliense Osborn p. 528
1930Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Osborn p. 530
1932Psittacosaurus osborni Young p. 261–262 fig. 2–3
1932Psittacosaurus tingi Young p. 263 fig. 4
1935Protiguanodon mongoliense Young
1935Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Young
1935Psittacosaurus osborni Young
1935Psittacosaurus tingi Young
1953Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Bohlin p. 16
1955Protiguanodon mongoliense Rozhdestvensky p. 783
1955Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Rozhdestvensky p. 783
1955Psittacosaurus osborni Rozhdestvensky p. 783
1955Psittacosaurus tingi Rozhdestvensky p. 783
1958Psittacosaurus osborni Young pp. 128-129
1958Psittacosaurus protiguanodonensis Young p. 129
1964Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Kuhn p. 29
1964Psittacosaurus osborni Kuhn p. 29
1964Psittacosaurus tingi Kuhn p. 29
1964Protiguanodon mongoliense Kuhn p. 30
1964Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Tatarinov p. 557
1970Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Russell p. 183
1970Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Swinton pp. 232-233
1970Protiguanodon mongoliense Swinton p. 233
1974Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Rozhdestvensky p. 147
1977Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Rozhdestvensky p. 114
1980Psittacosaurus osborni Chao
1980Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Coombs pp. 380-381
1982Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Cheng p. 123
1982Psittacosaurus osborni Cheng p. 123
1982Psittacosaurus protiguanodonensis Cheng p. 123
1982Psittacosaurus guyangensis Cheng p. 124–128 fig. 30–34
1982Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Coombs, Jr. p. 99
1982Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Sues and Galton p. 188
1986Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Qi et al. p. 192
1986Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Yu and Qi p. 162
1990Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Bakker et al. p. 13
1990Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Sereno p. 204
1990Psittacosaurus osborni Sereno p. 589
1992Psittacosaurus guyangensis Dong p. 111
1992Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Dong p. 166
1992Psittacosaurus osborni Dong p. 166
1994Psittacosaurus guyangensis Dong p. 2098
1994Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Dong p. 2098
1994Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Eberth et al. p. 2103
1997Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Barsbold p. 449
1997Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Dong p. 123
1997Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Erickson p. 5
1997Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Sereno p. 611
1999Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Wang et al. p. 3
2000Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Leshchinskiy et al. p. 365
2000Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Sereno p. 492
2001Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Brinkman et al. p. 1781
2001Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Makovicky p. 255
2003Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo p. 296
2004Psittacosaurus guyangensis You and Dodson p. 479
2004Psittacosaurus mongoliensis You and Dodson p. 479
2004Psittacosaurus osborni You and Dodson p. 479
2006Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Averianov et al. p. 390
2006Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Campione and Holmes p. 1014
2006Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Zhao et al. p. 470
2006Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Zhou et al. p. 105
2007Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Sereno et al. p. 276
2008Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Alifanov p. 623
2008Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Butler et al. p. 8
2008Psittacosaurus mongoliensis You et al. p. 183
2009Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Butler and Sullivan p. 31
2010Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Sereno p. 32
2010Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Sereno et al. p. 200
2012Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Prieto-Marquez et al. p. 119
2015Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Han et al. p. 19
2015Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Zheng et al. p. 6 fig. 3

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
RankNameAuthor
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Ornithischia()
Neornithischia()
Clypeodonta
Cerapoda
Marginocephalia
Ceratopsia()
familyPsittacosauridae
genusPsittacosaurus
speciesmongoliensis

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
H. F. Osborn 1923Herbivorous diapsid reptile with pre-dentary bone and horny beak. Maxillary teeth compressed, not fully known. Skull short and deep, narrow anteriorly, broad posteriorly. Rostrum prominent, parrot-like, edentulous. Nostrils small, orbits large. Infraorbital region and jaw heavy, with attachment for powerful muscles. Primitive dermal armature in head region; lateral osseous horns on jugals.
H. F. Osborn 1923 (Protiguanodon mongoliense)Probably a diapsid reptile with pre-dentary bone and horny beak. Nine teeth on the dentary, of iguanodont pattern. Rostrum short, jaw very deep but relatively slender. Teeth less compacted than in Psittacosaurus. Skull probably deep and short, without rostral prolongation. No evidence of dermal armature. Skeleton of Pro-Iguanodontia type; limbs of prebipedal type. Manus functionally tridactyl with vestigial IV. Pes functionally tetradactyl with vestigial V. Prominent prepubic process. Ilium, scapule and limbs of Pro-Iguanodontia type. Osseous tendons and tail indicating bipedal locomotion.