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Prenocephale prenes

Reptilia - Pachycephalosauridae

Taxonomy
Prenocephale prenes was named by Maryanska and Osmolska (1974). Its type specimen is ZPAL MgD-I/104, a partial skeleton, and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is northern Nemegt, site 19 [PMPE], which is in a Campanian/Maastrichtian terrestrial horizon in the Nemegt Formation of Mongolia. It is the type species of Prenocephale.

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1974Prenocephale prenes Maryanska and Osmolska p. 53 figs. 1C, 2-3, 6; Pl. 22:2, 23, 25:2-3, 31:2
1977Prenocephale prenes Rozhdestvensky p. 114
1979Prenocephale prenes Wall and Galton p. 1182
1990Prenocephale prenes Maryanska p. 566
1997Prenocephale prenes Barsbold p. 449
1997Prenocephale prenes Osmólska p. 472
1997Prenocephale prenes Sues p. 512
2000Prenocephale prenes Sereno p. 482
2000Prenocephale prenes Sullivan p. 177
2003Prenocephale prenes Sullivan p. 202
2003Prenocephale prenes Williamson and Carr fig. 11
2004Prenocephale prenes Maryanska et al. p. 465
2006Prenocephale prenes Sullivan p. 355
2009Prenocephale prenes Butler and Zhao p. 70
2009Prenocephale prenes Schott et al. p. 772
2009Prenocephale prenes Williamson et al. p. 292
2010Prenocephale prenes Longrich et al. p. 280
2016Prenocephale prenes Goodwin and Evans p. 6

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
RankNameAuthor
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Ornithischia()
Neornithischia()
Clypeodonta
Cerapoda
Marginocephalia
Pachycephalosauria()
familyPachycephalosauridae
genusPrenocephale
speciesprenes

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
T. Maryanska and H. Osmolska 1974Skull with highly domed frontoparietal roof with its highest point situated above the postorbital bar. Parietosquamosal shelf not developed. Outline of orbit subcircular with dorsal margin flattened. Postorbital portion of skull long. Premaxillary portion of snout separated from the maxillary portion by a long and deep diastema. Three caniniform premaxillary teeth present with a serrated crest developed along their posterior faces. Seventeen maxillary teeth arranged in a straight line which is bent outwards at the posterior end. Crowns of maxillary teeth small, ventral edges of crowns worn down. There is no supratemporal fenestra. Infratemporal fenestra short and broad. Antorbital fenestra present. Upper margin of orbit formed by two supraorbital bones. Frontal and prefrontal excluded from orbital margin. Uppermost portion of quadrate distinctly deflected backwards. The occipital region is overhung dorsally by the strongly swollen squamosals and its central part is deeply depressed. Foramen magnum small and round. Occipital condyle small. Basal tuber flat, its ventral edge close to quadrate wing of pterygoid. Basisphenoid deeply wedged dorsally between basal tubera and pterygoids. Surface of dome rough; row of conspicuous nodes developed along posterolateral and posterior margins of skull.