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Pinacosaurus

Reptilia - Ankylosauridae

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1933Pinacosaurus Gilmore p. 3 figs. 1-3
1935Pinacosaurus Young p. 5
1952Syrmosaurus Maleev pp. 131-134 figs. 1-3
1953Syrmosaurus Maleev pp. 109-110
1954Syrmosaurus Maleev pp. 146-147
1956Pinacosaurus Maleev
1956Pinacosaurus Romer p. 636
1958Pinacosaurus Huene p. 206
1958Syrmosaurus Huene p. 206
1959Pinacosaurus Huene p. 122
1959Syrmosaurus Huene p. 122
1964Syrmosaurus Kuhn p. 39
1964Pinacosaurus Kuhn p. 50
1964Pinacosaurus Tatarinov p. 577
1964Syrmosaurus Tatarinov p. 577
1965Pinacosaurus Simmons p. 69
1966Pinacosaurus Romer p. 370
1966Syrmosaurus Romer p. 370
1971Pinacosaurus Maryanska p. 47
1977Pinacosaurus Maryanska pp. 98, 101
1977Pinacosaurus Rozhdestvensky p. 113
1977Syrmosaurus Rozhdestvensky p. 113
1978Pinacosaurus Bonaparte p. 466
1978Pinacosaurus Coombs p. 144
1983Pinacosaurus Galton p. 6
1983Pinacosaurus Zhao p. 304
1984Pinacosaurus Kielan-Jaworowska p. 98
1986Pinacosaurus Coombs, Jr. p. 162
1986Pinacosaurus Sereno
1987Pinacosaurus Tumanova
1988Pinacosaurus Carroll
1992Pinacosaurus Dong p. 166
1995Pinacosaurus Buffetaut p. 687
1997Pinacosaurus Barsbold p. 450
1998Pinacosaurus Kirkland p. 273 fig. 3
2000Pinacosaurus Ford p. 176
2000Pinacosaurus Tumanova p. 523
2001Pinacosaurus Barrett p. 41
2001Pinacosaurus Carpenter p. 457
2001Pinacosaurus Pereda Suberbiola and Galton p. 204
2001Pinacosaurus Vickaryous et al. p. 1774
2003Pinacosaurus Garcia and Pereda-Suberbiola p. 161
2004Pinacosaurus Vickaryous et al. p. 364
2007Pinacosaurus Lü et al. p. 889 fig. 1
2007Pinacosaurus Lü et al. p. 349
2008Pinacosaurus Carpenter et al. p. 1099
2009Pinacosaurus Osi and Makádi pp. 230, 239 fig. 10
2009Pinacosaurus Parsons and Parsons p. 736 fig. 18
2010Pinacosaurus Longrich et al. p. 955
2014Pinacosaurus Arbour et al. p. 11 fig. 6
2014Pinacosaurus Han et al. p. 14 fig. 11

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
RankNameAuthor
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Ornithischia()
Genasauria
Thyreophora()
Ankylosauria()
familyAnkylosauridae
genusPinacosaurus

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
T. A. Tumanova 1987Small ankylosaurid; three pairs of openings in nostril region, no osteoderms in area; two pyramidal scutes above orbits elongated into supraorbital spine; posterior and lateral corners of skull with upper and lower postorbital spines; osteoderms do not project over occiput so occipital condyle visible from top; premaxillary rostrum rounded, width greater than space between the last maxillary teeth; anterior and posterior maxillary shelves poorly developed; palatal bones raised; medial section of anterior wall of pterygoids inclined forward; plane of occiput perpendicular to plane of the skull roof; occipital condyle broadly oval, with posteroventral orientation; contact of quadrate and paroccipital processes not ossified; quadrate inclined slightly forward, [articular] condyle below rear orbital border; ventral surface of basisphenoid without sharply defined relief; fenestra ovalis not joined to jugular foramen.