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Pinacosaurus grangeri

Reptilia - Ankylosauridae

Taxonomy
Pinacosaurus grangeri was named by Gilmore (1933). Its type specimen is AMNH 6523, a partial skeleton, and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Shabarakh Usu (AMNH loc. 12049), which is in a Campanian eolian sandstone in the Djadokhta Formation of Mongolia. It was considered monophyletic by Vickaryous et al. (2004).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1933Pinacosaurus grangeri Gilmore
1935Pinacosaurus grangeri Young
1935Pinacosaurus ninghsiaensis Young
1935Pinacosaurus ninghsiensis Young pp. 5-6
1935Pinacosaurus grangeri Young p. 24
1937Pinacosaurus grangeri Young p. 277
1939Pinacosaurus grangeri Riabinin p. 25
1952Syrmosaurus viminicaudus Maleev pp. 131-134
1952Syrmosaurus viminocaudus Maleev pp. 131-134 figs. 1-3
1953Pinacosaurus grangeri Bohlin p. 30
1953Pinacosaurus ninghsiensis Bohlin p. 30
1954Syrmosaurus viminicaudus Maleev p. 147 figs. 1-13
1964Syrmosaurus viminocaudus Kuhn p. 39
1964Pinacosaurus grangeri Kuhn p. 50
1964Pinacosaurus ninghsiensis Kuhn p. 50
1964Syrmosaurus viminicaudus Tatarinov p. 577
1965Pinacosaurus grangeri Simmons p. 69
1971Pinacosaurus grangeri Maryanska p. 47
1974Pinacosaurus grangeri Rozhdestvensky p. 147
1977Pinacosaurus grangeri Gradzinski et al. p. 301
1977Pinacosaurus grangeri Maryanska p. 101
1977Pinacosaurus grangeri Rozhdestvensky p. 113
1984Pinacosaurus grangeri Kielan-Jaworowska p. 104
1986Pinacosaurus ninghsiensis Zhao p. 72
1987Pinacosaurus grangeri Tumanova
1992Pinacosaurus grangeri Dong p. 166
1995Pinacosaurus grangeri Buffetaut p. 687
1997Pinacosaurus grangeri Barsbold p. 450
1997Pinacosaurus grangeri Coy p. 692
1997Pinacosaurus grangeri Norell and Makovicky p. 3
1997Pinacosaurus grangeri Osmólska p. 44
1997Pinacosaurus grangeri Vickaryous and Ryan p. 491
2000Pinacosaurus grangeri Ford p. 176
2000Pinacosaurus grangeri Tumanova p. 523
2001Pinacosaurus grangeri Carpenter p. 457
2001Pinacosaurus grangeri Carpenter et al. p. 212
2004Pinacosaurus grangeri Vickaryous et al. p. 364
2007Pinacosaurus grangeri Arbour p. 41A
2007Pinacosaurus grangeri Lü et al. p. 887
2009Pinacosaurus grangeri Parsons and Parsons p. 735
2010Pinacosaurus grangeri Longrich et al. p. 955
2011Pinacosaurus grangeri Burns and Sullivan p. 175
2013Pinacosaurus grangeri Kirkland et al. p. 7
2014Pinacosaurus grangeri Arbour et al. p. 8
2014Pinacosaurus grangeri Han et al. p. 3
2014Pinacosaurus grangeri Tsogtbaatar et al. p. 109

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
OlfactoresJefferies 1991
subphylumVertebrata
Gnathostomata()
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
RankNameAuthor
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Ornithischia()
Genasauria
Thyreophora()
Ankylosauria()
familyAnkylosauridae
genusPinacosaurus
speciesgrangeri

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
T. A. Tumanova 1987Premaxillary processes separate nostrils and elevate them, extend posteriorly between nasals, not covered by osteoderms; osteoderms do not project over medial portion of occiput; occipital condyle visible from above.