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Ceratopsidae (ceratopsid)

Reptilia - Ceratopsidae

Taxonomy
Ceratopsidae was named by Marsh (1888). It was considered monophyletic by Sereno (2000).

It was considered a nomen dubium by Lull (1906).

It was assigned to Ornithopoda by Mansel-Pleydell (1902); to Orthopoda by Depéret (1896), Lambe (1905), Huene (1909) and Lambe (1911); to Phytophagi by Jaekel (1914); to Predentata by von Zittel (1911) and Gilmore (1919); to Dinosauria by Marsh (1888) and Joleaud (1922); to Thyreophora by Nopcsa (1923), Nopcsa (1923), Huene (1927) and Huene (1929); to Thyreophoroidea by Nopcsa (1928), Nopcsa (1929) and Huene (1934); to Thyreophoroidea by Huene (1934); to Ceratopsia by Parks (1935); to Ornithischia by Lapparent (1947); to Ponderopoda by Huene (1948) and Huene (1959); to Ceratopsia by Marsh (1890), Marsh (1895), Marsh (1896), Hatcher et al. (1907), Matthew (1915), Gregory and Mook (1925), Russell (1930), Roxo (1937), Kuhn (1946), Huene (1950), Parsch (1963), Tatarinov (1964), Estes (1964), Kuhn (1964), Romer (1966), Swinton (1970), Thulborn (1971), Ostrom (1980), McIntosh (1981), Sues and Galton (1982), Russell (1984), Maryanska and Osmólska (1985), Ostrom and Wellnhofer (1986), Bakker (1986), Carroll (1988) and Nessov (1995); to Ceratopsomorpha by Wolfe and Kirkland (1998); to Ceratopsoidea by Hay (1902), Zhao (1983), Norman (1984), Cooper (1985), Sereno (1986), Sereno (1997), Sereno (1998), Sereno (1999), Sereno (2000), Lambert et al. (2001), Makovicky (2001), You and Dodson (2003), Chinnery and Horner (2007) and Farke et al. (2014); to Coronosauria by Zheng et al. (2015); to Ceratopsia by Brown and Henderson (2015) and Rivera-Sylva et al. (2017); and to Neoceratopsia by Dodson and Currie (1990), Dodson (1990), Dodson (1997), Chinnery and Weishampel (1998), Penkalski and Dodson (1999), Peng et al. (2001), Chinnery (2004), Ryan and Evans (2005), Ryan (2007), Ryan et al. (2017) and Dalman et al. (2018).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1872Agathaumas Cope p. 2
1872Agathaumas sylvestris Cope p. 2
1872Agathaumas Cope pp. 481-483
1872Agathaumas sylvestris Cope p. 483
1873Agathaumas sylvestris Cope p. 1
1874Polyonax Cope p. 10ff
1874Polyonax mortuarius Cope p. 10ff
1874Agathaumas sylvestris Cope p. 18
1874Polyonax mortuarius Cope p. 25
1875Agathaumas sylvestris Cope p. 54
1875Polyonax mortuarius Cope p. 64
1875Agathaumas sylvestris Cope p. 435
1875Polyonax mortuarius Cope p. 448
1882Agathaumas Dollo
1882Agathaumas Marsh
1882Agathaumas Sauvage p. 35
1883Agathaumas Cope p. 99
1884Agathaumas Dollo p. 298
1884Agathaumas Marsh p. 69
1885Agathaumas Marsh p. 764
1887Bison alticornis Marsh
1888Bison alticornis Cannon p. 143
1888Ceratopsidae Marsh p. 478
1889Agathaumas Cope
1889Agathaumas sylvestris Cope
1889Agathaumidae Cope
1889Polyonax Cope
1889Polyonax mortuarius Cope
1889Agathaumidae Cope p. 16
1889Polyonax alticornis Cope p. 290
1889Agathaumidae Cope p. 715
1889Polyonax Cope p. 906
1889Ceratops alticornis Marsh pp. 174-175
1889Triceratops galeus Marsh p. 174
1890Ceratopsidae Marsh p. 425
1890Agathaumas Zittel p. 751
1891Agathaumidae Baur p. 450
1891Agathaumas Cope p. 43
1891Agathaumas sylvestris Cope p. 43
1891Agathaumidae Cope p. 43
1891Polyonax Cope p. 43
1892Agathaumas Cope p. 758
1892Agathaumas sylvestre Cope p. 758
1892Agathaumas Seeley
1895Agathaumas Marsh
1895Ceratopsidae Marsh
1895Polyonax Marsh
1896Ceratopsidae Depéret p. 184
1896Agathaumas sylvestre Hatcher p. 113
1896Agathaumas Marsh p. 243
1896Ceratopsidae Marsh p. 243
1896Polyonax Marsh p. 243
1898Agathaumas Cope p. 70
1898Agathaumas sylvestris Cope p. 70
1898Agathaumidae Cope p. 70
1900Ceratops alticornis Walcott p. 23
1902Agathaumas Hay p. 498
1902Agathaumas mortuarius Hay p. 498
1902Agathaumas sylvestris Hay p. 498
1902Ceratopsidae Hay p. 498
1902Triceratops galeus Hay p. 498
1902Ceratops alticornis Hay p. 500
1902Polyonax mortuarius Lambe p. 68
1902Ceratopidae Mansel-Pleydell p. lxxv
1905Ceratopsidae Lambe p. 49
1906Triceratops alticornis Cannon p. 198
1906Agathaumas Lull p. 144
1907Ceratopsidae Hatcher et al. p. 10
1907Agathaumas Hatcher et al. p. 11
1907Agathaumas sylvestris Hatcher et al. p. 168
1907Triceratops alticornis Hatcher et al. p. 170
1909Ceratopsidae Huene p. 17
1909Agathaumas Huene p. 18
1909Polyonax Huene p. 18
1909Agathaumas sylvestris Knowlton p. 270
1911Ceratopsidae Lambe p. 9
1911Ceratopsidae von Zittel p. 295
1911Agathaumas von Zittel p. 296
1913Agathaumas Tornier p. 375
1914Ceratopsidae Jaekel p. 197
1915Triceratops ingens Lull
1915Ceratopsidae Matthew p. 32
1919Ceratopsidae Gilmore p. 64
1922Ceratopsidae Joleaud p. 59
1923Ceratopsidae Nopcsa p. 106
1925Ceratopsidae Gregory and Mook p. 4
1927Ceratopsidae Huene p. 257
1927Agathaumas Huene p. 261
1927Agathaumas sylvestris Huene p. 261
1927Triceratops alticornis Huene p. 261
1927Triceratops galeus Huene p. 261
1928Ceratopsidae Nopcsa p. 185
1929Ceratopsidae Huene p. 155
1929Ceratopsidae Nopcsa p. 71
1930Agathaumas Russell p. 140
1930Agathaumas sylvestris Russell p. 140
1930Ceratopsidae Russell p. 140
1931Triceratops alticornis Johnson p. 368
1931Triceratops galeus Johnson p. 368
1933Triceratops maximus Brown
1934Ceratopsidae Huene p. 15
1935Ceratopsidae Parks p. 185
1935Triceratops alticornis Schlaikjer p. 57
1937Ceratopsidae Roxo p. 65
1946Ceratopsidae Kuhn p. 66
1947Ceratopsidae Lapparent pp. 17-18
1948Ceratopsidae Huene p. 95
1950Ceratopsidae Huene p. 351
1956Agathaumas Romer p. 638
1959Ceratopsidae Huene p. 122
1963Ceratopsidae Parsch p. 4
1964Ceratopsidae Estes p. 145
1964Agathaumas Kuhn p. 54
1964Agathaumas silvestris Kuhn p. 54
1964Ceratopsidae Kuhn p. 54
1964Triceratops mortuarius Kuhn p. 59
1964Triceratops alticornis Kuhn p. 60
1964Triceratops galeus Kuhn p. 60
1964Triceratops ingens Kuhn p. 60
1964Triceratops maximus Kuhn p. 60
1964Triceratops maximus Russell p. 17
1964Ceratopsidae Tatarinov p. 581
1965Triceratops alticornis Ostrom p. 39
1965Triceratops galeus Ostrom p. 39
1965Triceratops maximus Ostrom p. 39
1966Ceratopsidae Romer p. 371
1970Ceratopsidae Swinton p. 254
1971Ceratopsidae Thulborn pp. 77-78 fig. 4
1980Ceratopsidae Ostrom p. 23
1981Ceratopsidae McIntosh p. 41
1982Ceratopsidae Sues and Galton p. 189
1983Ceratopsidae Zhao p. 300
1984Ceratopsidae Norman p. 160 fig. 2
1984Ceratopsidae Russell p. 29
1985Agathaumas Breithaupt p. 170
1985Agathaumas sylvestris Breithaupt p. 170
1985Ceratopsidae Cooper pp. 292-293
1985Ceratopsidae Maryanska and Osmólska pp. 143-144 fig. 1
1986Ceratopsidae Bakker p. 461
1986Ceratopsidae Ostrom and Wellnhofer p. 116
1986Ceratopsidae Sereno
1987Ugrosaurus CoBabe and Fastovsky p. 149 figs. 1-4
1987Ugrosaurus olsoni CoBabe and Fastovsky p. 149
1988Ceratopsidae Carroll
1990Ceratopsidae Dodson p. 578
1990Ceratopsidae Dodson and Currie p. 611
1995Ceratopsidae Nessov p. 54
1997Ceratopsidae Dodson pp. 473, 475–476
1997Ceratopsidae Sereno p. 443
1998Ceratopsidae Chinnery and Weishampel pp. 578-579 fig. 10
1998Ceratopsidae Sereno p. 62
1998Ceratopsidae Wolfe and Kirkland p. 307 fig. 5
1999Ceratopsidae Penkalski and Dodson
1999Ceratopsidae Sereno p. 2138 fig. 2
2000Ceratopsidae Sereno p. 482
2001Ceratopsidae Lambert et al. p. 18
2001Ceratopsidae Makovicky p. 254 fig. 18.3
2001Ceratopsidae Peng et al. p. 35
2003Ceratopsidae You and Dodson
2004Ceratopsidae Chinnery pp. 584-585 fig. 9
2005Ceratopsidae Ryan and Evans p. 323
2007Ceratopsidae Chinnery and Horner p. 638 fig. 6
2007Ceratopsidae Ryan p. 391 fig. 12
2014Ceratopsidae Farke et al.
2015Ceratopsidae Brown and Henderson
2015Ceratopsidae Zheng et al. p. 6 fig. 3
2017Ceratopsidae Rivera-Sylva et al.
2017Ceratopsidae Ryan et al.
2018Ceratopsidae Dalman et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
RankNameAuthor
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Ornithischia()
Neornithischia()
Clypeodonta
Cerapoda
Marginocephalia
Ceratopsia()
infraorderNeoceratopsia
Coronosauria
familyCeratopsidae
familyCeratopsidae

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
B. F. Nopcsa 1928skull with nuchal fringe and generally with horns; no armour on body.
F. v. Huene 1948Two interorbital horns and another one on nose; double skull-roof with empty space between frontal and parietal; prefrontal bordering on nasal.
P. Dodson 1997Skulls are large, and prominent horns are found over either the nose or the eyes, but usually not both (except Pachyrhinosaurus). The frill formed by the parietal and squamosal bones typically is about as long as or longer than the rest of the skull. The frill may be additionally ornamented with scallops, spikes, or hooks. Parietal fenestrae may be large (Chasmosaurus and Pentaceratops) or absent (Avaceratops and Triceratops). The opening for the nostril is large. The sharp beak is toothless, as in most protoceratopsids. Ceratopsids had dental batteries consisting of numerous interlocking teeth in which the roots of each tooth are split by the tooth beneath it in the replacement series. Also unique to ceratopsids is the vertical orientation of the plane of contact between the upper and lower tooth batteries, resulting in a peculiar slicing action. The occipital condyle by which the back of the skull contacts the vertebral column is spherical and in some cases as large as a small grapefruit (up to 115 mm in diameter).
There are 10 fused sacral vertebrae in ceratopsids. The femur is always longer than the tibia, andthe ungual phalanges are blunt, rounded, and hoof-like.