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Ornithischia (ornithischian)

Reptilia -

Ornithischia was named by Seeley (1888). It was considered monophyletic by Nesbitt (2011) and unknown by Zheng et al. (2012).

It was synonymized subjectively with Orthopoda by Hay (1902); it was synonymized subjectively with Postpubici by Jaekel (1910); it was reranked as the suborder Ornithischia by Parks (1935) and Young (1935); it was reranked as the subclass Ornithischia by Bakker and Galton (1974); it was reranked as the superorder Ornithischia by Cooper (1985) and Watabe et al. (2011); it was reranked as the unranked clade Ornithischia by Swinton (1934), Gauthier and Padian (1985), Gauthier (1986), Brinkman and Sues (1987), Gauthier et al. (1989), Novas (1989), Benton (1990), Buffetaut and Ingavat (1992), Novas (1993), Sereno et al. (1993), Novas (1996), Sereno (1997), Sereno (1998), Sereno (1999), Langer and Benton (2006), Ezcurra (2006), Martínez and Alcober (2009), Zheng et al. (2009), Cruzado-Caballero et al. (2010), Nesbitt (2011), Jasinski and Sullivan (2011), Shibata et al. (2011), Zheng et al. (2012), Yang et al. (2013), Evans et al. (2013), Arbour et al. (2014), Escaso et al. (2014), Freedman Fowler and Horner (2015), Gasulla et al. (2015), Shibata et al. (2015), Leahey et al. (2015), Carrano (2017), Rivera-Sylva et al. (2017), Penkalski and Tumanova (2017), Wang et al. (2017), Brown et al. (2017), Arbour and Evans (2017), Madzia et al. (2018) and Zheng et al. (2018).

It was assigned to Archosauromorpha by Huene (1948) and Huene (1954); to Dinosauria by Tatarinov (1964); to Archosauria by Kuhn (1966); to Dinosauria by Bakker and Galton (1974); to Reptilia by Seeley (1888), Lull (1924), Kuhn (1946), Sternberg (1954), Estes (1964) and Benton (1979); to Archosauria by Haughton and Brink (1954), Parsch (1963), Kuhn (1964), Romer (1966), Haubold (1971), Thulborn (1975) and Thurmond and Jones (1981); to Ornithischiformes by Cooper (1985); to Archosauria by Roxo (1937), Romer (1956), Ostrom (1980) and Carroll (1988); to Dinosauria by Seeley (1888), Seeley (1888), Huene (1909), Lull (1915), Swinton (1934), Parks (1935), Young (1935), Zhao (1983) and Long and Murry (1995); to Dinosauria by Peng et al. (2001); to Eudinosauria by Novas (1992) and Carrano (2017); and to Dinosauria by Gardiner (1982), Gauthier and Padian (1985), Gauthier (1986), Brinkman and Sues (1987), Gauthier et al. (1989), Novas (1989), Benton (1990), Buffetaut and Ingavat (1992), Novas (1993), Sereno et al. (1993), Novas (1996), Sereno (1997), Sereno (1998), Sereno (1999), Langer and Benton (2006), Ezcurra (2006), Martínez and Alcober (2009), Zheng et al. (2009), Cruzado-Caballero et al. (2010), Nesbitt (2011), Jasinski and Sullivan (2011), Watabe et al. (2011), Shibata et al. (2011), Zheng et al. (2012), Yang et al. (2013), Evans et al. (2013), Arbour et al. (2014), Escaso et al. (2014), Freedman Fowler and Horner (2015), Gasulla et al. (2015), Shibata et al. (2015), Leahey et al. (2015), Rivera-Sylva et al. (2017), Penkalski and Tumanova (2017), Wang et al. (2017), Brown et al. (2017), Arbour and Evans (2017), Madzia et al. (2018) and Zheng et al. (2018).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1866Orthopoda Cope
1869Orthopoda Cope p. 90
1870Orthopoda Cope p. 90
1871Orthopoda Cope p. 234
1875Orthopoda Cope p. 13
1877Orthopoda Cope p. 572
1879Orthopoda Seeley p. 183
1883Orthopoda Cope p. 98
1887Orthopoda Baur p. 101
1887Omosauria Seeley p. 562
1888Ornithischia Seeley
1889Orthopoda Cope p. 16
1890Orthopoda Zittel pp. 450, 736
1891Orthopoda Cope p. 43
1894Predentata Marsh
1895Predentata Marsh
1896Predentata Marsh p. 242
1897Orthopoda Gadow p. 204
1898Orthopoda Cope p. 68
1900Orthopoda Van Den Broeck p. 82
1901Predentata Hatcher p. 129
1902Orthopoda Hay p. 495
1902Orthopoda Huene
1903Orthopoda Osborn p. 456
1904Orthopoda Lull p. 479
1904Orthopoda Osborn p. 114
1905Orthopoda Lambe p. 48
1907Predentata Hatcher et al. p. 10
1909Orthopoda Arldt p. 263
1909Ornithischia Huene p. 16
1909Orthopoda Huene p. 17
1911Predentata von Zittel p. 288
1913Predentata Broom p. 364
1913Praedentata Tornier p. 370
1914Orthopoda Huene p. 38
1914Predentata Janensch p. 83
1915Praedentata Hennig p. 10
1915Ornithischia Lull p. 117
1915Orthopoda Lull p. 117
1916Predentata Gilmore p. 281
1917Orthopoda Lull p. 117
1919Notoceratops Tapia p. 370
1919Notoceratops bonarelli Tapia p. 370
1920Predentata McKelvey p. 6
1922Orthopoda Joleaud p. 59
1923Orthopoda Nopcsa p. 126
1924Ornithischia Lull p. 236
1927Notoceratops Huene p. 256
1927Notoceratops bonarelli Huene p. 256
1927Orthopoda Huene p. 259
1928Orthopoda Nopcsa p. 184
1929Notoceratops Huene p. 147
1929Notoceratops bonarellii Huene p. 147
1929Orthopoda Huene p. 155
1930Notoceratops bonarelli Wiman p. 16
1931Notoceratops Huene p. 197
1931Notoceratops bonarelli Huene p. 197
1933Notoceratops bonarelli Lull p. 18
1934Ornithischia Swinton p. 40
1935Ornithischia Parks p. 184
1935Ornithischia Young p. 5
1937Ornithischia Roxo p. 44
1946Ornithischia Kuhn p. 66
1948Ornithischia Huene p. 93
1950Notoceratops Huene p. 351
1954Ornithosuchia Haughton and Brink p. 4
1954Ornithischia Huene p. 48
1954Ornithischia Sternberg p. 383
1956Ornithischia Romer p. 624
1956Notoceratops Romer p. 639
1960Notoceratops bonarelli Jeletzky p. 37
1963Ornithischia Parsch p. 4
1964Notoceratops Casamiquela
1964Ornithischia Estes p. 144
1964Fabrosaurus Ginsburg pp. 2366-2368
1964Fabrosaurus australis Ginsburg p. 2367
1964Notoceratops Kuhn p. 58
1964Notoceratops bonarellii Kuhn p. 58
1964Ornithischia Kuhn p. 312
1964Ornithischia Tatarinov p. 552
1964Notoceratops Tatarinov p. 581
1966Ornithischia Kuhn p. 99
1966Notoceratops Romer p. 370
1966Ornithischia Romer p. 370
1970Fabrosaurus Ellenberger p. 349
1970Fabrosaurus australis Ellenberger p. 349
1970Fabrosaurus australis Thulborn p. 414
1970Fabrosaurus Thulborn p. 430
1971Ornithischia Haubold p. 86
1971Fabrosaurus Thulborn pp. 76-77
1972Fabrosaurus Galton p. 465
1972Fabrosaurus Thulborn p. 50
1972Fabrosaurus australis Thulborn p. 50
1973Fabrosaurus Galton p. 17
1974Fabrosaurus Bakker and Galton p. 170
1974Ornithischia Bakker and Galton p. 171
1974Fabrosaurus Galton p. 150
1974Fabrosaurus Maryanska and Osmolska p. 101
1974Fabrosaurus australis Maryanska and Osmolska p. 101
1974Fabrosaurus australis Thulborn p. 152
1974Fabrosaurus Thulborn p. 171
1975Alocodon Thulborn p. 90
1975Alocodon kuehnei Thulborn p. 90
1975Fabrosaurus australis Thulborn p. 99
1975Trimucrodon Thulborn pp. 118-119
1975Trimucrodon cuneatus Thulborn pp. 118-119 fig. 25
1975Alocodon Thulborn p. 133
1975Fabrosaurus Thulborn p. 133
1975Trimucrodon Thulborn p. 133
1975Ornithischia Thulborn p. 267
1976Fabrosaurus Bonaparte p. 815
1976Fabrosaurus Santa Luca et al. p. 324
1978Fabrosaurus Anderson and Cruickshank p. 31
1978Notoceratops Bonaparte p. 570
1978Notoceratops bonarellii Bonaparte p. 570
1978Fabrosaurus Galton p. 156
1978Fabrosaurus australis Galton p. 156
1978Trimucrodon Galton p. 159
1978Alocodon Galton p. 230
1978Fabrosaurus Thuborn p. 187
1978Fabrosaurus australis Thuborn p. 187
1979Ornithischia Benton p. 142
1979Notoceratops bonarelli Bonaparte p. 233
1980Notoceratops Bonaparte and Powell p. 26
1980Notoceratops bonarelli Bonaparte and Powell p. 26
1980Trimucrodon Galton p. 88
1980Notoceratops Molnar p. 137
1980Notoceratops bonarelli Molnar p. 140
1980Ornithischia Ostrom p. 22
1981Ornithischia Thurmond and Jones p. 144
1982Ornithischia Gardiner p. 229
1983Gongbusaurus Dong et al. pp. 94-95 figs. Pl. 43:6-8
1983Gongbusaurus shiyii Dong et al. p. 94
1983Trimucrodon Galton p. 11
1983Trimucrodon cuneatus Galton p. 11
1983Alocodon Weishampel and Weishampel p. 44
1983Alocodon kuehnei Weishampel and Weishampel p. 44
1983Fabrosaurus Weishampel and Weishampel p. 44
1983Fabrosaurus australis Weishampel and Weishampel p. 44
1983Trimucrodon Weishampel and Weishampel p. 44
1983Trimucrodon cuneatus Weishampel and Weishampel p. 44
1983Ornithischia Zhao p. 295
1984Notoceratops Bonaparte p. 142
1984Notoceratops bonarellii Bonaparte p. 142
1984Alocodon Milner and Norman p. 146
1984Trimucrodon Milner and Norman p. 146
1984Alocodon Norman p. 342
1984Trimucrodon Norman p. 342
1984Fabrosaurus Olsen and Galton p. 91
1984Fabrosaurus australis Olsen and Galton p. 91
1984Fabrosaurus Santa Luca
1985Ornithischia Cooper p. 284
1985Ornithischia Gauthier and Padian pp. 189-190 fig. 2
1986Predentata Bakker p. 472
1986Fabrosaurus Battail p. 50
1986Notoceratops Bonaparte p. 90
1986Notoceratops bonarelli Bonaparte p. 90
1986Ornithischia Gauthier p. 44
1986Notoceratops Ostrom and Wellnhofer p. 116
1987Ornithischia Brinkman and Sues p. 502 fig. 7
1988Fabrosaurus Carroll
1988Gongbusaurus Carroll
1988Notoceratops Carroll
1988Ornithischia Carroll
1988Trimucrodon Carroll
1989Gongbusaurus Dong
1989Gongbusaurus shiyii Dong
1989Fabrosaurus australis Frances and Sanz p. 141
1989Ornithischia Gauthier et al. p. 346
1989Ornithischia Novas p. 686 fig. 2
1990Ornithischia Benton p. 19
1991Alocodon Antunes and Sigogneau-Russell p. 113
1991Alocodon Galton p. 300
1991Alocodon kuehnei Galton p. 300
1991Trimurodon Galton p. 300
1991Trimurodon cuneatus Galton p. 300
1991Alocodon Sereno pp. 172-173
1991Alocodon kuehnei Sereno pp. 172-173
1991Trimucrodon Sereno pp. 172-173
1991Trimucrodon cuneatus Sereno pp. 172-173
1992Ornithischia Buffetaut and Ingavat
1992Gongbusaurus Dong p. 165
1992Gongbusaurus shiyii Dong p. 165
1992Ornithischia Novas pp. 59-60 fig. 6
1993Ornithischia Novas p. 110
1993Ornithischia Sereno et al. p. 65 fig. 2
1994Fabrosaurus australis Chure et al. p. 306
1994Trimucrodon cuneatus Galton p. 256
1994Trimucrodon Galton p. 265
1994Fabrosaurus Hunt and Lucas p. 238
1994Fabrosaurus australis Hunt and Lucas p. 238
1995Ornithischia Long and Murry p. 191
1996Notoceratops bonarellii Bonaparte pp. 90-92
1996Notoceratops Bonaparte p. 113
1996Ornithischia Novas p. 737 fig. 10
1997Notoceratops bonarelli Novas p. 680
1997Fabrosaurus Peng p. 237–238
1997Fabrosaurus australis Peng p. 237–238
1997Gongbusaurus Peng p. 238–239
1997Gongbusaurus shiyii Peng p. 239
1997Ornithischia Sereno p. 443
1998Ornithischia Sereno p. 61
1999Ornithischia Sereno p. 2138 fig. 2
2000Trimucrodon Ruiz-Omeñaca p. 69
2001Ornithischia Peng et al. p. 33
2006Ornithischia Ezcurra p. 657 fig. 3
2006Ornithischia Langer and Benton pp. 345-347 fig. 15
2006Trimucrodon cuneatus Mateus p. 231
2007Fabrosaurus Gand et al. p. 74
2007Fabrosaurus australis Gand et al. p. 74
2007Laoyingshanpus torridus Xing
2007Laoyingshanpus Xing and et al.
2009Ornithischia Martínez and Alcober p. 11 fig. 10
2009Laoyingshanpus Xing et al. p. 832
2009Ornithischia Zheng et al. p. 333
2010Ornithischia Cruzado-Caballero et al.
2010Notoceratops bonarellii Ibiricu et al.
2010Trimucrodon cuneatus Mateus and Milàn p. 253
2010Alocodon Mateus and Milàn p. 254
2010Alocodon kuehnei Mateus and Milàn p. 254
2010Trimucrodon Mateus and Milàn p. 254
2011Ornithischia Jasinski and Sullivan p. 202
2011Ornithischia Nesbitt p. 210 fig. 52
2011Ornithischia Shibata et al. p. 970
2011Ornithischia Watabe et al. p. 490
2012Ornithischia Zheng et al. p. 210
2013Ornithischia Evans et al. p. 2
2013Ornithischia Yang et al. p. 268
2014Ornithischia Arbour et al.
2014Ornithischia Escaso et al. p. 1103
2015Ornithischia Freedman Fowler and Horner
2015Ornithischia Gasulla et al.
2015Ornithischia Leahey et al.
2015Ornithischia Shibata et al.
2017Ornithischia Arbour and Evans p. 7
2017Ornithischia Brown et al.
2017Ornithischia Carrano p. 128
2017Ornithischia Penkalski and Tumanova
2017Ornithischia Rivera-Sylva et al.
2017Ornithischia Wang et al.
2018Ornithischia Madzia et al.
2018Ornithischia Zheng et al.

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

E. D. Cope 1869 (Orthopoda)Proximal tarsal bones distinct from each other and from the tibia, articulating with a tibia and with a terminal face of a well developed fibula. The ilium with a massive narrowed anterior prolongation.
K. A. v. Zittel 1890 (Orthopoda)Zwischenkiefer zahnlos oder nur seitlich mit Zähnen besetzt. Unterkiefer mit einem zahnlosen Symphysenbein (Praedentale). Zähne blattförmig, zusammengedrückt, am Vorder- und Hinterrand meist schief oder parallel der Längsaxe gezackt, bei längerem Gebrauch abgekaut. Nasenlöcher sehr gross, weit vorne. Prae orbitale Oeffnung klein oder fehlend. Wirbel massiv, opisthocöl, platycöl oder amphicöl. Schambeine entweder nach unten und vorn gerichtet, distal verbreitert und in der Symphyse verbunden (Ceratopsia) oder aus einem kurzen, frei nach vorn gerichteten Fortsatz und einem langen, dem Ischium parallelen Postpubis bestehend (Stegosauria, Ornithopoda). Extremitätenknochen hohl (Ornithopoda) oder massiv (Stegosauria, Ceratopsia). Vorderbeine meist sehr kurz, so dass der Körper beim Gehen von den langen Hinterbeinen getragen wird. Füsse digitigrad (Ornithopoda) oder plantigrad (Stegosauria, Ceratopsia). Hinterfüsse in der Regel mit drei, seltener mit vier functionirenden Zehen. Hautskelet sehr stark entwickelt (Stegosauria) oder fehlend {Ornithopoda).
R. S. Lull 1924The distinguishing feature of this order of predentate or beaked dinosaurs lies in the tetraradiate pelvis, in which the pubis has two branches, a forwardly directed prepubis, and a slender postpubis, varying in its development in the different families, but lying approximately parallel with the ischium. A further distinction is the direct outcome of their herbivorous mode of life, in that the teeth are confined almost entirely to the posterior part of the mouth, maxillaries and dentaries, while with but two known exceptions (Hypsilophodon and Protoceratops, see below) the premaxillae are toothless. The two rami of the mandible are united by a toothless symphyseal bone, the predentary. The Ceratopsia have in addition a rostral bone above in front of the premaxillaries. The anterior or prehensile part of the mouth was sheathed by a leathery or horny beak. The crowns of the teeth are generally more or less leaf-shaped, and the cutting surface faced inward in the upper jaws and outward in the lower. The anterior nares are very large and lateral in position, while the antorbital fenestrae are small, sometimes wanting; vertebral centra generally solid, opistho-, amphi- to platycoelous ; limb bones hollow or solid; digitigrade or semiplantigrade feet, generally depressed unguals, sometimes hoof-like; astragalus without ascending process; dermal skeleton sometimes very strongly developed, sometimes lacking; Upper Trias to Uppermost Cretaceous.
B. F. Nopcsa 1928 (Orthopoda)predentary bone on mandibular symphysis; pubes rotated backward; pubic protuberance of ilium short; never rapacious
F. v. Huene 1948Probably originating from Chirotherioidea. Pubis bent backwards, pre-pubis new formation. Therefore, it can be concluded from the musculature (pubo-ischio-femoralis externus), that the body was vigorously pushed forwards and this results in an accelerated locomotion i.e. a protection from enemies. Herbivorous animals.
Premaxilla without teeth (with one exception); prerostral and predental are new dermal bones; preorbit small or absent; teeth more or less spatuliform; mandible with coronoid process; about 10 cervicals, numerous sacrals; often calcified dorsal tendons; often elongated lower arm; manus with 5 fingers; ilium with very long anterior spine, often antitrochanter; ischium with long peduncle; narrow pubis parallel to it, but of varying length; tibia not shorter than femur; pes digitigrad or secondarily plantigrade; two sternal plates; often armoured. Upper Triassic to Upper Cretaceous.
M. R. Cooper 1985Herbivorous ornithischiformes with wear facets to the cheek teeth, an opisthopubic pelvis, a supraorbital element, a predentary bone to the mandible, an inturned head to the femur, and a pendent 4th trochanter.
S. J. Nesbitt 2011The most inclusive clade containing Triceratops horridus Marsh, 1889, but not Passer domesticus Linnaeus, 1758, or Saltasaurus loricatus Bonaparte and Powell, 1980
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Entire body: yeso
Adult length: 10 to < 100o
Adult width: 1.0 to < 10o
Adult height: 1.0 to < 10o
Maximum body mass: 10000 kgg
Minimum body mass: 300 gg
Architecture: compact or denseo
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partso
Grouping: gregariouso
Environment: terrestrialo
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: ground dwellingo
Diet: herbivoreo
Reproduction: oviparouso
Dispersal: direct/internalo
Dispersal 2: mobileo
Created: 2004-12-14 12:50:52
Modified: 2004-12-14 14:50:52
Source: g = genus, o = order
References: Kiessling 2004, Peczkis 1995, Marsh 1875

Age range: base of the Carnian to the top of the Late/Upper Maastrichtian or 237.00000 to 66.00000 Ma

Collections (3838 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Carnian237.0 - 228.0India (Madhya Pradesh) Ornithischia indet. (105292)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Italy (Toscana) Ornithischia indet. (68779)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Italy (Veneto) Ornithischia indet. (68833)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0USA (New Mexico) Ornithischia indet. (83736)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Argentina (La Rioja) Pisanosaurus mertii (26452)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Italy (Liguria) Anomoepus sp. (68780)
Late/Upper Triassic237.0 - 201.3USA (New Jersey) Anomoepus intermedius (91694)
Late/Upper Triassic237.0 - 201.3China (Shaanxi) Shenmuichnus sp. (126538)
Norian228.0 - 208.5USA (Colorado) Anomoepodidae indet. (55259)
Norian228.0 - 208.5USA (Pennsylvania) Anomoepus gracillimus (55413) Anomoepus sp. (55414)

Youngest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state PBDB collection number
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Germany (Bayern) Hadrosauridae indet. (67197)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Canada (Nunavut) Lambeosaurinae indet. (118411)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0France (Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur) Hadrosauridae indet. (48866) Ornithopoda indet. (178472)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (Wyoming) Anatosaurus sp., Triceratops sp., Ankylosaurus magniventris, Pachycephalosaurus grangeri, Thescelosaurus neglectus (14585) Edmontosaurus annectens (26760) Hadrosauridae indet. (128559) Leptoceratops sp. (53824) Thescelosaurus neglectus (48626 50085) Triceratops eurycephalus (52107) Triceratops flabellatus (165876) Triceratops sp. (52088) Triceratops sp., Trachodon sp. (164991 164992 164993)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (Alaska) Hadrosauridae indet., Pachyrhinosaurus sp. (51889)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (South Dakota) Edmontosaurus sp., Ornithopoda indet. (157189) Tatankaceratops sacrisonorum (97798)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Netherlands (Limburg) Euhadrosauria indet. (67136) Hadrosauridae indet. (67133 67135 67137) Orthomerus dolloi (48876) Telmatosaurus dolloi (67134)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (New Mexico) Ceratopsidae indet. (62529 62531 62532 62534 62546) Pachycephalosauridae indet. (47008) Scelidosauridae indet. (62542 62543 62544) Trachodontidae indet. (62486 62488)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Romania (Judetul Covurlui) Mochlodon sp. (96687)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (Texas) Hadrosauridae indet., Gryposaurus alsatei (187092)