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Physeteroidea

Mammalia - Artiodactyla

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1868Physeteroidea Gray p. 1868
1872Physeteroidea Gill p. 96
1945Physeteroidea Simpson p. 101
1960Physeteroidea Fraser and Purves p. 112 figs. Figure 26
1973Physeteroidea Kasuya p. 61
1974Aulophyseter rionegrensis Gondar
1974Physeteroidea Gondar
1985Physeteroidea Barnes et al. p. 26
1994Physeteroidea Fordyce and Barnes p. 428 figs. Table 1
1995Physeteroidea Fordyce et al. p. 379
1995Physeteroidea Hirota and Barnes p. 455
1997Physeteroidea McKenna and Bell p. 379
1998Physeteroidea Rice
2001Physeteroidea Fordyce and de Muizon p. 179
2002Physeteroidea Kazár p. 154
2002Physeteroidea Rice p. 231 figs. Table 1
2003Physeteroidea Geisler and Sanders p. 28
2005Physeteroidea Gingerich p. 237 figs. Table 15.1
2006Physeteroidea Bianucci and Landini
2006Physeteroidea Hampe p. 64
2007Physeteroidea Bianucci and Landini p. 45 figs. Table 2.1
2008Physeteroidea Agnarsson and May-Collado p. 981 figs. Fig. 4.3
2008Physeteroidea Bloodworth and Odell p. 1
2008Physeteroidea Lambert p. 279
2008Physeteroidea Uhen et al. p. 573
2008Physeteroidea Whitmore and Kaltenbach p. 230
2009Physeteroidea Rice p. 235 figs. Table 1
2010Physeteroidea Canto et al. p. 20
2010Physeteroidea Lambert et al. p. 105
2011Physeteroidea Bianucci et al. p. 560
2011Physeteroidea Geisler et al. p. 5 figs. Table 1
2014Physeteroidea Carone and Marra p. 122
2015Physeteroidea Boersma and Pyenson p. 7
2015Physeteroidea Velez-Juarbe et al. p. 5
2016Physeteroidea Marx et al. p. 122
2016Physeteroidea Velez-Juarbe et al. pp. e1135806-2
2017Physeteroidea Berta p. 161
2017Physeteroidea Collareta et al. p. 261
2017Physeteroidea Reumer et al. p. 33

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
OlfactoresJefferies 1991
subphylumVertebrata
Gnathostomata()
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
RankNameAuthor
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
orderArtiodactyla()
Cetacea()
Pelagiceti
Neoceti
Odontoceti()
superfamilyPhyseteroidea
superfamilyPhyseteroidea

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
M. D. Uhen et al. 2008Living sperm whales encompass the Physeteridae and Kogiidae, which are classified together in the Physeteroidea (see, e.g. Simpson 1945, Fraser and Purves 1960). Alternative classifications have placed Physeterinae and Kogiinae in the one family Physeteridae (e.g. Simpson 1945, Luo and Marsh 1996, Kazar 2002). Some systematists also include the Ziphiidae (below) in the Physeteroidea.
Physeteroids differ from the other odontocetes by having a very large dorsal supracranial basin (e.g. Raven and Gregory 1933) which holds the highly modified melon and/or spermaceti organ; facial soft tissues vary in detail between Kogia and Physeter (see e.g. Heyning 1989a, Cranford et al. 1996, Clarke 2003). Diagnostic bony features for the crown-Physeteroidea include: extreme left-skew cranial asymmetry involving the external nares and mesethmoid, with enlarged left naris and reduced right naris; nasal bones are reduced or absent; marked asymmetry of premaxillary sac fossae and foramina with reduction in structures on the left side; antorbital notch is a deep slit; bony supracranial basin is formed by crests involving maxillae and bones that normally form the post-narial vertex in other odontocetes; lacrimo-jugal is robust and enlarged; pterygoid sinus is greatly enlarged but lacks anterior or orbital extensions, with only the dorsal bony lamina well developed; falciform process is absent; posterior process of tympanic bulla is enlarged; foramen ovale lies in an extreme anterior position; dentition homodont; centra of the thoracic vertebrae are not anteroposteriorly compressed; humerus retains a relatively large deltopectoral crest; proximal end of ulna has a radial facet on its anterior border (see e.g. Flower 1868, Kellogg 1928, Fraser and Purves 1960, Muizon 1991, Kazar 2002). Detailed study is needed to confirm which are physeteroid synapomorphies.