Basic info  Taxonomic history  Classification  Relationships 
Morphology  Ecology and taphonomy  External Literature Search  Age range and collections 
Dugongidae (dugong)
Mammalia  Sirenia  Dugongidae
Taxonomy
Dugongidae was named by Gray (1821). It is extant.
It was assigned to Herbivorae by Gray (1821); to Dugongoidea by Heal (1973); to Trichechiformes by Simpson (1932), Kretzoi (1941), Pilleri et al. (1989) and Sach and Heizmann (2001); to Sirenia by Canto et al. (2010); to Sirenia by Berta (2017); and to Sirenia by Rhoads (1903), Sherman (1952), Reinhart (1959), Scheffer and Rice (1963), Reinhart (1976), Husar (1978), Kurten and Anderson (1980), Barnes et al. (1985), de Muizon and Domning (1985), Takahashi et al. (1986), Domning (1988), PIlleri (1988), Carroll (1988), Toledo and Domning (1991), Domning (1991), Nowak (1991), Domning (1994), ArandaManteca et al. (1994), Domning and Furusawa (1995), Domning (1996), Domning (1997), Bajpai and Domning (1997), Rice (1998), Bergqvist et al. (1999), Sagne (2001), Rice (2002), Pledge (2006), Voss (2008), Domning and Aguilera (2008), Domning (2008), Rice (2009), Thewissen and Bajpai (2009), Samonds and Zalmout (2009), Bajpai et al. (2010), Voss (2011), Domning (2011), Bianucci et al. (2011), Domning and Pervesler (2012), VelezJuarbe et al. (2012), Zalmout and Gingerich (2012), Sorbi et al. (2012), VelezJuarbe and Domning (2014), VelezJuarbe and Domning (2015), Balaguer and Alba (2016), Voss et al. (2016), Voss et al. (2017), Voss and Hampe (2017), Gol'din et al. (2018) and Domning (2018).
It was assigned to Herbivorae by Gray (1821); to Dugongoidea by Heal (1973); to Trichechiformes by Simpson (1932), Kretzoi (1941), Pilleri et al. (1989) and Sach and Heizmann (2001); to Sirenia by Canto et al. (2010); to Sirenia by Berta (2017); and to Sirenia by Rhoads (1903), Sherman (1952), Reinhart (1959), Scheffer and Rice (1963), Reinhart (1976), Husar (1978), Kurten and Anderson (1980), Barnes et al. (1985), de Muizon and Domning (1985), Takahashi et al. (1986), Domning (1988), PIlleri (1988), Carroll (1988), Toledo and Domning (1991), Domning (1991), Nowak (1991), Domning (1994), ArandaManteca et al. (1994), Domning and Furusawa (1995), Domning (1996), Domning (1997), Bajpai and Domning (1997), Rice (1998), Bergqvist et al. (1999), Sagne (2001), Rice (2002), Pledge (2006), Voss (2008), Domning and Aguilera (2008), Domning (2008), Rice (2009), Thewissen and Bajpai (2009), Samonds and Zalmout (2009), Bajpai et al. (2010), Voss (2011), Domning (2011), Bianucci et al. (2011), Domning and Pervesler (2012), VelezJuarbe et al. (2012), Zalmout and Gingerich (2012), Sorbi et al. (2012), VelezJuarbe and Domning (2014), VelezJuarbe and Domning (2015), Balaguer and Alba (2016), Voss et al. (2016), Voss et al. (2017), Voss and Hampe (2017), Gol'din et al. (2018) and Domning (2018).
Subtaxa
Anisosiren, Caribosiren, Dugonginae (syn. Rhytiodinae, Halicorinae, Rytiodontinae, Thelriopiinae), Eosiren (syn. Archaeosiren), Eotheroides (syn. Eotherium, Masrisiren), Halitheriinae (syn. Halianassinae, Halitherida, Metaxytheriinae, Eotherioidinae, Archaeosireninae), Halitherium (syn. Halytherium), Halitherium alleni, Halitherium antillense, Halitherium taulannense, Hydrodamalinae (syn. Rytinadae, Rytinidae, Rhytinea, Rytineae), Indosiren, Kaupitherium, Lentiarenium, Metaxytherium (syn. Cheirotherium, Fucotherium, Haplosiren, Hesperosiren, Felsinotherium, Pontotherium, Thalattosiren, Halysiren, Halianassa), Miodugong, Paralitherium, Priscosiren, Prohalicore, Rytiodinae, Sirenavus, Trachytherium
Synonyms

Synonymy list
Year  Name and author 

1821  Dugongidae Gray p. 309 
1824  Hippopotamus dubius Cuvier 
1825  Halicoridae Gray p. 340 
1838  Manatus renggeri Bronn p. 840 
1838  Halytherium Kaup p. 319 
1838  Halytherium dubium Kaup p. 319 figs. Plate II 
1838  Pugmeodon schinzii Kaup p. 319 
1838  Halitherium Kaup p. 536 
1844  Manatus dubius Blainville 
1844  Manatus schinzii Blainville 
1844  Manatus guettardi Blainville pp. 122124 
1846  Metaxytherium guettardi Laurillard p. 172 
1846  Halianassa collinii Von Meyer p. 328 
1847  Halitherium guettardi Gervais p. 221 
1847  Pygmaeodon schinzii Giebel p. 230 
1849  Trachytherium Gervais p. 644 
1849  Trachytherium raulinii Gervais p. 644 
1849  Trachytherium Gervais p. 645 
1852  Halitherium dubium Kaup p. 145 
1853  Halitherium Bronn p. 777 
1853  Halitherium schinzi Bronn p. 780 
1853  Trachytherium Bronn p. 789 
1853  Trachytherium raulini Bronn p. 789 
1853  Halitherium Pictet p. 373 
1853  Trachytherium Pictet p. 374 
1858  Halitherium kaupi Krauss p. 528 
1868  Halicorida Brandt p. 344 
1872  Halicoroidea Gill p. 91 
1872  Halicoridae Gill p. 92 
1872  Halicoroidea Gill p. 92 
1872  Halitherium Gill p. 92 
1872  Trachytherium Gill p. 92 
1883  Halicoridae Flower p. 184 
1884  Halitherium chouqueti Gaudry p. 373 figs. Plate XVII 
1885  Halitherium dubium Woodward p. 425 
1885  Halitherium schinzi Woodward p. 425 
1885  Trachytherium Woodward p. 425 
1885  Trachytherium raulini Woodward p. 425 
1886  Manatherium delheidi Hartlaub p. 378 
1887  Halitherium Deperet p. 273 
1887  Halitherium Lydekker p. 5 
1887  Halitherium schinzi Lydekker p. 7 
1889  Halicoridae Cope p. 876 
1890  Halicoridae Cope p. 698 
1890  Halitherium Cope p. 698 
1891  Halicoridae Flower and Lydekker p. 89 
1891  Halitherium Newton p. 48 
1895  Halitherium raulinii Deperet p. 410 
1895  Halicoridae Flores p. 15 
1898  Manatherium delheidi Trouessart p. 999 
1898  Halicoridae Trouessart p. 1003 
1898  Halitherium Trouessart p. 1004 
1898  Halitherium schinzi Trouessart p. 1004 
1903  Dugongidae Rhoads p. 246 
1904  Halitherium schinzi Abel p. 215 
1904  Manatherium delheidi Trouessart p. 748 
1904  Halicoridae Trouessart p. 749 
1904  Halitherium Trouessart p. 749 
1904  Halitherium schinzi Trouessart p. 749 
1904  Halitherium chouqueti Trouessart p. 750 
1906  Halicoridae Andrews p. 197 
1912  Halicoridae Turner p. 145 
1916  Halitherium antillense Matthew p. 25 
1919  Halicoridae Abel p. 833 
1925  Halitherium uytterhoeveni Abel p. 39 
1925  Halitherium Zittel p. 265 
1925  Halitherium schinzi Zittel p. 265 
1928  Halicoridae Weber p. 495 
1930  Halitherium Hay p. 656 
1932  Dugongidae Simpson p. 423 
1932  Halitherium Simpson p. 424 
1932  Halitherium alleni Simpson p. 445 figs. Plate II, Fig. 1 
1934  Protosiren dubia Sickenberg p. 190 
1934  Halitherium schinzi Sickenberg p. 271 
1941  Dugongidae Kretzoi p. 154 
1941  Halitherium Kretzoi p. 154 
1952  Dugongidae Sherman p. 98 
1959  Dugongidae Reinhart p. 63 
1963  Dugongidae Scheffer and Rice p. 4 
1966  Felsinotherium alleni Kellogg p. 91 
1973  Dugongidae Heal p. 89 
1973  Halitherium Heal p. 199 
1974  Metaxytherium alleni Fondi and Pacini p. 45 
1976  Dugongidae Reinhart p. 199 
1976  Halitherium Reinhart p. 236 
1978  Halitherium Domning 
1978  Dugongidae Husar p. 1 
1980  Dugongidae Kurten and Anderson p. 340 
1985  Dugongidae Barnes et al. p. 33 
1985  Dugongidae de Muizon and Domning p. 192 
1986  Dugongidae Takahashi et al. p. 300 
1987  Halianassa schinzii Domning p. 123 
1987  Halitherium schinzi lareolensis Pilleri p. 46 
1987  Halitherium schinzii lareolensis Pilleri p. 46 figs. Plate XXVII 
1988  Dugongidae Carroll 
1988  Halitherium Carroll 
1988  Dugongidae Domning p. 399 
1988  Dugongidae PIlleri p. 46 
1989  Dugongidae Pilleri et al. p. 17 
1991  Dugongidae Domning p. 398 
1991  Dugongidae Nowak 
1991  Dugongidae Toledo and Domning p. 122 
1994  Dugongidae ArandaManteca et al. p. 192 
1994  Dugongidae Domning p. 189 
1994  Halitherium Domning p. 189 
1994  Halitherium schinzii Domning p. 189 
1995  Dugongidae Domning and Furusawa p. 506 
1996  Dugongidae Domning p. 382 
1996  Halitherium Domning p. 384 
1996  Halitherium alleni Domning p. 384 
1996  Halitherium antillense Domning p. 384 
1996  Halitherium schinzii Domning p. 384 
1997  Dugongidae Bajpai and Domning p. 219 
1997  Dugongidae Domning p. 398 
1998  Dugongidae Rice 
1999  Dugongidae Bergqvist et al. p. 31 
2001  Dugongidae Sach and Heizmann p. 42 
2001  Dugongidae Sagne p. 473 
2001  Halitherium Sagne p. 473 
2001  Halitherium schinzii Sagne p. 473 
2001  Halitherium taulannense Sagne p. 473 figs. Figure 1 
2002  Dugongidae Rice p. 232 figs. Table 1 
2002  Halitherium Sepkoski, Jr. 
2006  Halitherium Clementz et al. p. 360 
2006  Halitherium taulannense Clementz et al. p. 360 
2006  Dugongidae Pledge p. 295 
2007  Halitherium schinzi Voss p. 45 
2008  Dugongidae Domning 
2008  Halitherium Domning 
2008  Halitherium alleni Domning 
2008  Halitherium antillense Domning 
2008  Halitherium schinzii Domning 
2008  Dugongidae Domning and Aguilera p. 480 
2008  Dugongidae Voss p. 259 
2008  Halitherium Voss p. 259 
2008  Halitherium schinzii Voss p. 259 
2009  Dugongidae Rice p. 235 figs. Table 1 
2009  Dugongidae Samonds and Zalmout p. 1235 
2009  Dugongidae Thewissen and Bajpai p. 7 
2010  Dugongidae Bajpai et al. p. 42 
2010  Dugongidae Canto et al. p. 20 
2011  Dugongidae Bianucci et al. p. 574 
2011  Dugongidae Domning p. 1340 
2011  Dugongidae Voss 
2011  Halitherium Voss 
2012  Dugongidae Domning and Pervesler p. 136 
2012  Dugongidae Sorbi et al. p. 688 
2012  Dugongidae VelezJuarbe et al. p. 587 
2012  Dugongidae Zalmout and Gingerich p. 37 
2014  Dugongidae VelezJuarbe and Domning p. 951 
2015  Dugongidae VelezJuarbe and Domning p. 2 
2016  Dugongidae Balaguer and Alba 
2016  Dugongidae Voss et al. p. 6 
2017  Dugongidae Berta p. 170 
2017  Dugongidae Voss and Hampe p. 341 
2017  Dugongidae Voss et al. p. 165 
2018  Dugongidae Domning p. 857 figs. Fig. 1 
2018  Halitherium Domning p. 857 figs. Fig. 1 
2018  Dugongidae Gol'din et al. 
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If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available