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Metaxytherium

Mammalia - Sirenia - Dugongidae

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1839Cheirotherium Bruno p. 160
1840Fucotherium Kaup p. 675
1840Pontotherium Kaup p. 676
1840Metaxytherium de Christol p. 322
1844Metaxytherium beaumontii de Christol p. 130
1852Halitherium beaumontii Gervais p. 144
1872Felsinotherium Capellini p. 615
1872Cheirotherium Gill p. 92
1872Fucotherium Gill p. 92
1872Metaxytherium Gill p. 92
1872Pontotherium Gill p. 92
1885Chirotherium Woodward p. 424
1885Halitherium beaumontii Woodward p. 425
1887Halitherium beaumonti Deperet p. 273
1895Metaxytherium Flores p. 15
1898Metaxytherium Trouessart p. 1004
1898Felsinotherium Trouessart p. 1005
1904Metaxytherium meyeri Abel p. 15
1904Felsinotherium Palmer p. 284
1904Fucotherium Palmer p. 286
1904Metaxytherium Palmer p. 418
1904Pontotherium Palmer p. 558
1904Felsinotherium Trouessart p. 750
1904Metaxitherium Trouessart p. 750
1919Felsinotherium Abel p. 834
1919Metaxytherium Abel p. 834
1925Felsinotherium Zittel p. 265
1925Metaxytherium Zittel p. 265
1928Thalattosiren Sickenberg p. 294
1930Metaxytherium Hay p. 655
1932Felsinotherium Simpson p. 424
1932Hesperosiren Simpson p. 424
1932Metaxytherium Simpson p. 424
1932Thalattosiren Simpson p. 424
1932Hesperosiren Simpson p. 429 figs. Fig. 1-10
1932Felsinotherium gunteri Simpson p. 449
1941Halysiren Kretzoi p. 153
1941Thalattosiren Kretzoi p. 154
1941Halianassa Kretzoi p. 155
1941Hesperosiren Kretzoi p. 155
1941Metaxytherium Kretzoi p. 155
1951Haplosiren Kretzoi p. 438
1952Felsinotherium Sherman p. 98
1952Hesperosiren Sherman p. 98
1959Halianassa Reinhart pp. 23-44 figs. 4-6
1971Metaxytherium Daxner-Hoeck p. 764
1973Metaxytherium Heal p. 140
1973Thalattosiren Heal p. 199
1973Felsinotherium Heal p. 200
1974Metaxytherium beaumonti Fondi and Pacini p. 45
1974Metaxytherium meyeri Fondi and Pacini p. 45
1975Metaxytherium Ginsburg and Janvier p. 90
1976Metaxytherium Reinhart p. 199
1976Hesperosiren Reinhart p. 229
1978Metaxytherium Domning
1985Metaxytherium de Muizon and Domning p. 192
1988Felsinotherium Carroll
1988Hesperosiren Carroll
1988Metaxytherium Carroll
1988Thalattosiren Carroll
1988Metaxytherium Domning p. 399
1988Cheirotherium PIlleri p. 46
1988Felsinotherium PIlleri p. 48
1989Metaxytherium Pilleri et al. p. 68
1991Metaxytherium Toledo and Domning p. 133
1994Metaxytherium Aranda-Manteca et al. p. 192
1994Metaxytherium Domning p. 189
1996Thalattosiren Domning p. 288
1996Metaxytherium Domning p. 385
1999Metaxytherium Bergqvist et al. p. 31
2001Metaxytherium Sach and Heizmann p. 42
2002Felsinotherium Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Halianassa Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Hesperosiren Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Metaxytherium Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Thalattosiren Sepkoski, Jr.
2008Metaxytherium Domning
2012Metaxytherium Domning and Pervesler p. 136
2012Metaxytherium Sorbi et al. p. 688
2012Metaxytherium Velez-Juarbe et al. p. 588
2014Metaxytherium Voss p. 91 figs. Figure 3
2017Metaxytherium Berta p. 170
2017Metaxytherium Hastings and Dooley p. 83
2017Metaxytherium Voss and Hampe p. 341
2018Metaxytherium Domning p. 246

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
RankNameAuthor
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
AfrotheriaStanhope et al. 1998
Tethytheria
orderSirenia()
familyDugongidae
genusMetaxytherium

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
R. H. Reinhart 1959 (Halianassa)Rostrum slightly downturned, narrow pinched-in area on dorsal suface, lacks incisors; nasals separated by frontals in mid-line; lacrimal a thin vertical wedge; posterior two-fifths of dorsal surface of parietals squared by temporal crests; region for temporal fontanelle advanced partly anterior to brain case; supraoccipital separated from formen magnum by about 10 mm; angle of mandible greatly elongated vertically; coronoid process curved acutely inward; seventh cervical pierced by vertebrarterial canal; axes of humerus diverge at about 70 degrees; distal medial borders of radius-ulna slightly fused.
D. P. Domning and P. Pervesler 2012A paraphyletic genus of dugongids that differs from most other halitheriines by possession of the following apomorphies: permanent premolars 1-4 lost [c. 157 (2)]; supraorbital process of frontal reduced and dorsoven- trally thickened [c. 36(1)]; posterior part of zygomatic-orbital bridge of maxilla usually elevated >1 cm above alveolar mar- gin [c. 11(1)]; nasals usually separated in midline [c. 31(1)];
supraoccipital wider ventrally than dorsally; exoccipitals usu- ally not meeting in a midline suture above foramen magnum [c. 66(1)]; and ventral border of horizontal ramus of mandible strongly concave [c. 122(3)]; differs from hydrodamalines by lack of the following apomorphies: processus retroversus of squamosal uninflected [c. 77(2)]; lacrimal reduced [c. 91(2)]; ventral border of horizontal ramus of mandible moderately concave [c. 122(2)]; horizontal ramus of mandible slender [c. 128(0)]; first upper incisor vestigial or absent [c. 139(1)] (J. Vélez-Juarbe and D. P. Domning, in preparation).__