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Mammalia - Ungulata - Squalodelphinidae

Squalodelphidae was named by Dal Piaz (1917) [NOT L. Ginsburg and P. Janvier 1971. Les mamiferes marins des faluns miocenes de la Touraine et de l'Anjou Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Sciences de la Terre 6(22):161-195. p. 177.]. Its type is Squalodelphis. It was considered monophyletic by Muizon (1987) and Uhen et al. (2008) and Barnes and Reynolds (2009).

It was reranked as the family Squalodelphinae by Ginsburg and Janvier (1971); it was synonymized subjectively with Hyperoodontidae by McKenna and Bell (1997); it was corrected as Squalodelphinidae by Muizon (1991), Fordyce and de Muizon (2001), Rice (2002), Geisler and Sanders (2003), Gingerich (2005), Godfrey et al. (2006), Barnes (2006), Bianucci and Landini (2007), Whitmore and Kaltenbach (2008), Uhen et al. (2008), Rice (2009), Barnes and Reynolds (2009), Lambert et al. (2014), Aguirre-Fernández and Fordyce (2014), Bianucci et al. (2015), Marx et al. (2016), Berta (2017), Bianucci et al. (2018) and Nelson and Uhen (2018).

It was assigned to Squaloceti by Dal Piaz (1929) and Van Deinse (1931); to Ziphiidae by Ginsburg and Janvier (1971); to Squalodontoidea by Barnes et al. (1985); to Odontoceti by Pilleri (1985) and Geisler and Sanders (2003); and to Platanistoidea by Muizon (1984), Muizon (1987), Muizon (1991), Muizon (1994), Fordyce and Barnes (1994), Fordyce et al. (1995), Rice (1998), Fordyce and de Muizon (2001), Rice (2002), Gingerich (2005), Godfrey et al. (2006), Barnes (2006), Bianucci and Landini (2007), Whitmore and Kaltenbach (2008), Uhen et al. (2008), Rice (2009), Barnes and Reynolds (2009), Geisler et al. (2011), Lambert et al. (2014), Aguirre-Fernández and Fordyce (2014), Bianucci et al. (2015), Marx et al. (2016), Berta (2017), Bianucci et al. (2018) and Nelson and Uhen (2018).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1917Squalodelphidae Dal Piaz p. 32
1929Squalodelphidae Dal Piaz p. 77
1931Squalodelphidae Van Deinse p. 33
1971Squalodelphinae Ginsburg and Janvier p. 170
1984Squalodelphidae Muizon p. 68
1985Squalodelphidae Barnes et al. p. 25
1985Squalodelphidae Pilleri p. 26
1987Squalodelphidae Muizon p. 13
1991Squalodelphinidae Muizon p. 312
1994Squalodelphidae Fordyce and Barnes p. 429 figs. Table 1
1994Squalodelphidae Muizon p. 136
1995Squalodelphidae Fordyce et al. p. 379
1998Squalodelphidae Rice
2001Squalodelphinidae Fordyce and de Muizon p. 178
2002Squalodelphinidae Rice p. 231 figs. Table 1
2003Squalodelphinidae Geisler and Sanders p. 28
2005Squalodelphinidae Gingerich p. 237 figs. Table 15.1
2006Squalodelphinidae Barnes p. 32
2006Squalodelphinidae Godfrey et al. p. 68A
2007Squalodelphinidae Bianucci and Landini p. 45 figs. Table 2.1
2008Squalodelphinidae Uhen et al. p. 582
2008Squalodelphinidae Whitmore and Kaltenbach p. 189
2009Squalodelphinidae Barnes and Reynolds p. 487
2009Squalodelphinidae Rice p. 235 figs. Table 1
2011Squalodelphidae Geisler et al. p. 29 figs. Figure 5
2014Squalodelphinidae Aguirre-Fernández and Fordyce p. 195
2014Squalodelphinidae Lambert et al. p. 990
2015Squalodelphinidae Bianucci et al. p. 6
2016Squalodelphinidae Marx et al. p. 126 figs. Figure 4.25
2017Squalodelphinidae Berta p. 163
2018Squalodelphinidae Bianucci et al. p. 4
2018Squalodelphinidae Nelson and Uhen

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
orderUngulata(Linnaeus 1766)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

M. D. Uhen et al. 2008Dal Piaz (1917) proposed the Squalodelphinidae (originally spelled Squalodelphidae) for the Italian Early Miocene species Squalodelphis fabianii. The family was mostly ignored, and often subsumed under Ziphiidae, until Muizon (1987, 1991) identified it as an extinct clade including Squalodelphis, Notocetus, and the North American Phocageneus (see Kellogg 1957), which forms the sister taxon for the Platanistidae sensu Muizon, and has these synapomorphies: periotic with square-shaped pars cochlearis and large thin-edged aperture for the cochlear aqueduct; tympanic bulla with ventral groove along whole length; manubrium of malleus with anterior extension; dorsal transverse process of atlas strongly developed, ventral process extremely reduced. The subcircular fossa of the basicranium may be characteristic, although the homology of such structures in platanistoids is not clear (Fordyce 1994, Muizon 1994). Like Platanista and the stem-Platanistidae, the scapula lacks the coracoid process, and the acromion lies on the anterior edge of the scapula with loss of the supraspinous fossa.
O. Lambert et al. 2014Squalodelphinidae differ from Allodelphinidae and Platanistidae except Platanista by having a proportionally shorter rostrum (rostrum length/condylobasal length <0.70); Allodelphinidae and Platanistidae by lacking a deep lateral groove on the rostrum and a deeper, ‘V’-shaped, left antor- bital notch, related to anteriorly pointed antorbital process (right notch usually shallower). Squalodelphinidae differ from Platanistidae by having an antorbital-supraorbital region lacking a dis- tinct crest; a square-shaped pars cochlearis; a large, dorsally facing, aperture for the cochlear aqueduct of the periotic; median furrow of the tympanic affecting the whole length of bone, including the anterior spine (except in Squalodelphinidae aff. Huaridelphis raimondii MUSM 603); apical extension of the manubrium of the malleus (except in Squalodelphinidae aff. Huaridelphis raimondii MUSM 603); retention of ornamentation on posterior teeth; and strong development of the dorsal transverse process of the atlas and extreme reduction of its ventral process.