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Enantiornithes

Reptilia - Avetheropoda

View classification of included taxa

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1981Enantiornithes Walker p. 51
1994Enantiornithes Chiappe and Calvo p. 239 fig. 1
1996Enantiornithes Sanz et al. p. 442
1998Enantiornithes Sereno p. 65
1999Enantiornithes Ji et al. p. 5
1999Enantiornithes Sereno p. 2139 fig. 2
2000Enantiornithes Sereno
2000Enantiornithes Zhang and Zhou p. 1955
2001Enantiornithes Norell and Clarke p. 183
2002Enantiornithes Chiappe p. 451 fig. 20.1
2002Cathayornis aberransis HOu and et al.
2002Cathayornis aberransis Hou and et al.
2004Enantiornithes Padian p. 212
2005Enantiornithes Clarke et al. p. 307
2006Enantiornithes Zhou and Zhang p. 79
2007Enantiornithes Chatterjee and Templin p. 1577 fig. 4
2008Enantiornithes Cau and Arduini
2008Cathayornis chabuensis Li et al. p. 1116 figs. 3a, b; 4a, b
2008Enantiornithes Osi
2010Cathayornis aberransis O'Connor and Dyke p. 17
2010Enantiornithes Tykoski and Fiorillo p. 288
2010Enantiornithes Wang et al. p. 247
2011Enantiornithes Li and Hou p. 40
2013Enantiornithes Kurochkin et al.
2013Enantiornithes O'Connor and Zelenkov
2014Enantiornithes O'Connor and Sullivan
2014Enantiornithes Wang et al.
2014Enantiornithes Wang et al.
2014Enantiornithes Wang et al.
2014Enantiornithes Zhang et al.
2015Enantiornithes Wang and Liu
2017Enantiornithes Hu and O'Connor
2017Enantiornithes Wang et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
RankNameAuthor
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Theropoda()
Neotheropoda
AverostraPaul 2002
Tetanurae
orderAvetheropoda
suborderCoelurosauria
Maniraptora
Paraves
classAves
PygostyliaChiappe 2002
Ornithothoraces
subclassEnantiornithes
subclassEnantiornithes

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Entire body: yeso
Adult length: 10 to < 100o
Adult width: 1.0 to < 10o
Adult height: 1.0 to < 10o
Architecture: compact or denseo
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partso
Grouping: solitaryo
Environment: terrestrialo
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: ground dwellingo
Diet: carnivoresubo
Reproduction: oviparouso
Dispersal: direct/internalo
Dispersal 2: mobileo
Created: 2009-01-03 20:39:15
Modified: 2009-01-03 22:39:15
Source: subo = suborder, o = order
References: Kiessling 2004, Benton 1983, Marsh 1875

Age range: base of the Valanginian to the top of the Late/Upper Maastrichtian or 139.80000 to 66.00000 Ma

Collections (93 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Late/Upper Jurassic - Barremian163.5 - 125.0China (Hebei) Shenqiornis mengi (96195)
Berriasian - Barremian145.0 - 125.0China (Liaoning) Euenantiornithes indet. (79657)
Early/Lower Cretaceous145.0 - 100.5China (Nei Mongol) Enantiornithes indet. (46936) Otogornis genghisi (85296)
Valanginian139.8 - 132.9Japan (Ishikawa) Enantiornithes indet. (32324)
Hauterivian132.9 - 129.4China (Hebei) Cruralispennia multidonta (194615) Eopengornis martini (163268)
Hauterivian - Aptian132.9 - 113.0Mongolia (Bayan-Hongor Aymag) Holbotia ponomarenkoi (113357)
Late/Upper Barremian130.0 - 125.45Spain (Cuenca) Eoalulavis hoyasi, Iberomesornis sp., Concornis lacustris, Aves indet. (28006)
Late/Upper Barremian - Early/Lower Aptian130.0 - 122.46China (Hebei) Protopteryx fengningensis, Paraprotopteryx gracilis (68022)
Barremian129.4 - 125.0Spain (Cataluña) Enantiornithes indet., Noguerornis gonzalezi (85293)
Barremian129.4 - 125.0China (Hebei) Protopteryx fengningensis (156414)
Barremian129.4 - 125.0China (Liaoning) Euenantiornithes indet., Liaoxiornis delicatus, Lingyuanornis parvus, Dalingheornis liweii, Grabauornis lingyuanensis (13937)
Barremian - Early/Lower Aptian129.4 - 122.46China (Liaoning) Enantiornithes indet. (79521) Eoenantiornis buhleri (79522)
Barremian - Aptian129.4 - 113.0China (Hebei) Vescornis hebeiensis (79520)
Barremian - Aptian129.4 - 113.0Russian Federation (Kemerovo) Evgenavis nobilis (52808)
Early/Lower Aptian125.45 - 122.46China (Liaoning) Enantiornithes indet. (67611 118207) Longirostravis hani (123753) Shanweiniao cooperorum, Pengornis sp. (82783)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0China (Liaoning) Alethoalaornis agitornis, Longipteryx chaoyangensis, Dapingfangornis sp., Yuanjiawaornis viriosus (79941) Bohaiornis guoi, Parabohaiornis martini, Longusunguis kurochkini (153809) Bohaiornis guoi, Sulcavis geeorum (105772) Boluochia zhengi, Cathayornis yandica, Cathayornis caudatus, Longchengornis sanyanensis, Largirostrornis sexdentornis (79517) Camptodontus yangi (109245) Cuspirostrisornis houi, Largirostrornis sexdentoris (116136) Enantiornithes indet., Pengornis houi, Huoshanornis huji, Dapingfangornis sentisorhinus, Xiangornis shenmi, Piscivorenantiornis inusitatus (55536) Eocathayornis walkeri (85255) Fortunguavis xiaotaizicus (129475) Gracilornis jiufotangensis (151538) Linyiornis amoena (78922) Longipteryx chaoyangensis (85262) Longipteryx sp. (79518) Monoenantiornis sihedangia (194582) Parapengornis eurycaudatus (169930) Pterygornis dapingfangensis (79523) Rapaxavis pani, Zhouornis hani (90046) Shengjingornis yangi (98449) Sinornis santensis (85285) Zhouornis hani (150275)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Brazil (Ceará) Euenantiornithes indet. (169901)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0China (Gansu) Enantiornithes indet., Euenantiornithes indet., Qiliania graffini, Dunhuangia cuii, Feitianius paradisi (62293)
Late/Upper Aptian122.46 - 112.03Australia (Victoria) Enantiornithes indet. (51961)
Albian113.0 - 100.5Australia (Queensland) Nanantius eos, Enantiornithes indet. (85237)
Late/Upper Albian105.3 - 99.6Australia (Queensland) Enantiornithes indet. (122712)
Late/Upper Cretaceous100.5 - 66.0Uzbekistan Explorornis nessovi, Explorornis walkeri, Incolornis silvae, Incolornis martini, Abavornis bonaparti, Catenoleimus anachoretus (182591)
Early/Lower Cenomanian - Middle Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Lebanon (Kesrouâne) Enantiornithes indet. (60285)
Middle Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Canada (Saskatchewan) Enantiornithes indet. (52997)
Middle Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5USA (Texas) Flexomornis howei (94333)
Turonian - Santonian93.9 - 83.6China (Yunnan) Parvavis chuxiongensis (153694)
Middle Turonian - Late/Upper Turonian93.5 - 89.3Uzbekistan (Navoi) Kizylkumavis cretacea (75943) Sazavis prisca (58168) Sazavis prisca, Zhyraornis logunovi (58166)
Santonian86.3 - 83.6Argentina (Neuquén) Enantiornithes indet. (13305)
Santonian86.3 - 83.6Argentina (Río Negro) Neuquenornis volans (47798)
Santonian86.3 - 83.6Mongolia (Dornogov) Neoceratopsia indet. (80183)
Santonian86.3 - 83.6Hungary (Veszprém) Bauxitornis mindszentyae, Aves indet. (48722)
Santonian86.3 - 83.6Mexico (Baja California del Norte) Alexornis antecedens (13312)
Late/Upper Santonian - Early/Lower Campanian85.8 - 70.6USA (Montana) Avisaurus sp. (22689)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Mongolia (Omnogov) Enantiornithes indet. (168986) Gobipterygidae indet. (11582 154402) Gobipteryx minuta (13776)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Mongolia (Omnogov Aimak) Gobipteryx sp. (37184)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Mongolia (Ömnögovi Aimag) Gobipteryx sp. B (130798)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Canada (British Columbia) Enantiornithes indet. (132556)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Argentina (Salta) Intiornis inexpectatus (133219)
Campanian - Maastrichtian83.6 - 66.0Argentina (Chubut) Enantiornithes indet. (121187)
Early/Lower Campanian - Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Alabama) Halimornis thompsoni (80890)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Canada (Alberta) Pterodactyloidea indet. (34750)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Utah) Enantiornithes indet. (132512) Mirarce eatoni (197478)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Canada (British Columbia) Euenantiornithes indet. (84196)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6France (Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur) Aves indet. (28454)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6France (Languedoc-Roussillon) Enantiornithes indet., Martinavis cruzyensis (48870)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Mongolia (Omnogovi) Nanantius valifanovi (58105)
Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6Mongolia (Omnogov) Gobipipus reshetovi (153543) Gobipteryx minuta (13777)
Late/Upper Campanian - Early/Lower Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0Mongolia Gurilynia nessovi (84444)
Late/Upper Campanian - Early/Lower Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0Mongolia (Omnogov) Gobipteryx sp. (168983)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Romania Enantiornithes indet. (132350)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Brazil (Minas Gerais) Enantiornithes indet. (32346)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Madagascar (Mahajanga) Enantiornithes indet. (25074 39266 85063)
Early/Lower Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Romania (Alba) Enantiornithidae indet. (80859)
Early/Lower Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Argentina (Salta) Enantiornis sp., Enantiornis leali, Euenantiornithes indet., Lectavis bretincola, Yungavolucris brevipedalis, Soroavisaurus australis, Martinavis sp., Martinavis saltariensis, Martinavis minor, Martinavis whetstonei, Elbretornis sp., Elbretornis bonapartei, Aves indet. (13307)
Lancian70.6 - 66.0USA (Montana) Avisaurus archibaldi (14515)
Lancian70.6 - 66.0USA (North Dakota) Avisaurus archibaldi (14610)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Romania (Hunedoara) Euenantiornithes indet. (26369)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Belgium (Liège) Enantiornithes indet. (67130)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0France (Haute-Garonne) Aves indet. (118194)