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Tetanurae (tetanuran)

Reptilia -

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1842Streptospondylus cuvieri Owen p. 88
1861Streptospondylus cuvieri Owen p. 299 figs. 103, 2
1870Streptospondylus cuvieri Lennier pp. 38-39
1874Streptospondylus cuvieri Sauvage p. 17
1875Streptospondylus cuvieri Owen p. 21
1881Megalosaurus pannoniensis Seeley pp. 670-671
1882Megalosaurus pannoniensis Sauvage p. 9
1884Megalosaurus pannoniensis Dames p. 188
1888Allosaurus medius Marsh p. 93
1890Megalosaurus cuvieri Gaudry p. 227
1890Streptospondylus cuvieri Zittel p. 725
1896Megalosaurus pannoniensis Depéret p. 190
1902Antrodemus medius Hay p. 489
1906Streptospondylus cuvieri Nopcsa p. 81
1911Allosaurus medius Lull p. 173
1911Creosaurus potens Lull p. 174
1911Allosaurus medius Lull p. 183 figs. Pl. 14:1-3
1911Creosaurus potens Lull pp. 186-7 fig. 14
1911Megalosaurus cuvieri Nopcsa p. 25
1915Megalosaurus pannoniensis Nopcsa p. 16
1915Streptospondylus cuvieri Stromer p. 6
1920Dryptosaurus potens Gilmore pp. 116-8 fig. 66
1920Dryptosaurus medius Gilmore pp. 119-21
1920Megalosaurus ingens Janensch
1921Dryptosaurus medius Gilmore p. 583
1921Dryptosaurus potens Gilmore p. 584
1922Dryptosaurus medius Matthew and Brown p. 376
1923Megalosaurus cuvieri Huene pp. 451-453
1923Altispinax Huene p. 453
1923Streptospondylus cuvieri Piveteau p. 9
1924Prodeinodon Osborn pp. 6-7
1924Prodeinodon mongoliense Osborn pp. 6-7 figs. 5-7
1925Streptospondylus cuvieri Depéret and Savornin p. 1110
1925Allosaurus tendagurensis Janensch pp. 74-76 figs. Pl. 6, fig. 7
1925Megalosaurus ingens Janensch pp. 90-91
1926Megalosaurus pannoniensis Huene p. 81
1928Streptospondylus cuvieri Depéret and Savornin p. 260
1928Streptospondylus pannoniensis Depéret and Savornin pp. 262-263
1928Altispinax Nopcsa p. 183
1928Teinurosaurus Nopcsa pp. 183 ff2
1931Allosaurus medius Stromer p. 9
1931Megalosaurus pannoniensis Stromer p. 10
1931Streptospondylus cuvieri Stromer p. 16
1932Caudocoelus Huene p. 53
1932Caudocoelus sauvagei Huene p. 53 fig. 6
1934Streptospondylus cuvieri Stromer p. 15
1935Prodeinodon mongoliensis Young
1936Altispinax Swinton p. 208
1936Streptospondylus cuvieri Swinton p. 208
1942Sinocoelurus Young pp. 297-298 figs. Pl. 1:6-8
1942Sinocoelurus fragilis Young pp. 297-298 figs. Pl. 1:6-8
1942Chienkosaurus Young pp. 298-300 figs. Pl. I:9-10; Pl. 2:1-2
1942Chienkosaurus ceratosauroides Young pp. 298-300 figs. Pl. 1:9-10; Pl. 2:1-2
1942Sinocoelurus Young p. 298
1942Chienkosaurus Young p. 300
1943Megalosaurus ingens Lapparent p. 11
1943Streptospondylus cuvieri Lapparent p. 11
1943Chienkosaurus ceratosauroides Young et al. p. 18
1943Sinocoelurus fragilis Young et al. p. 18
1946Dryptosaurus medius Gilmore p. 17
1946Dryptosaurus potens Gilmore p. 17
1947Megalosaurus pannoniensis Lapparent p. 19
1948Altispinax Huene p. 90
1948Megalosaurus pannoniensis Lapparent p. 1186
1953Prodeinodon mongoliensis Bohlin p. 16
1956Caudocoelus Romer p. 612
1956Sinocoelurus Romer p. 612
1956Chienkosaurus Romer p. 615
1956Prodeinodon Romer p. 616
1957Megalosaurus pannoniensis Lapparent and Zbyszewski p. 27
1958Chienkosaurus Huene p. 205
1958Sinocoelurus Huene p. 205
1959Sinocoelurus Huene p. 121
1959Chienkosaurus Huene p. 122
1960Megalosaurus pannoniensis Jeletzky p. 34
1960Inosaurus Lapparent p. 26
1960Inosaurus tedreftensis Lapparent pp. 26-27
1964Sinocoelurus Tatarinov p. 533
1964Chienkosaurus Tatarinov p. 537
1964Inosaurus Tatarinov p. 537
1964Prodeinodon Tatarinov p. 540
1964Altispinax Walker p. 128
1966Altispinax Romer p. 369
1966Caudocoelus Romer p. 369
1966Chienkosaurus Romer p. 369
1966Inosaurus Romer p. 369
1966Prodeinodon Romer p. 369
1966Sinocoelurus Romer p. 369
1967Megalosaurus cuvieri Lapparent p. 10
1967Megalosaurus pannoniensis Lapparent p. 10
1970Caudocoelus Steel p. 13
1970Caudocoelus sauvagei Steel p. 13
1970Inosaurus Steel p. 16
1970Inosaurus tedreftensis Steel p. 16
1970Sinocoelurus Steel p. 17
1970Sinocoelurus fragilis Steel p. 17
1970Antrodemus tendagurensis Steel p. 29
1970Chienkosaurus Steel p. 31
1970Chienkosaurus ceratosauroides Steel p. 31
1970Dryptosaurus medius Steel p. 31
1970Dryptosaurus potens Steel p. 31
1970Megalosaurus pannoniensis Steel p. 34
1970Megalosaurus ingens Steel p. 35
1970Prodeinodon Steel p. 42
1970Prodeinodon mongoliense Steel p. 42
1970Megalosaurus pannoniensis Swinton p. 142
1970Altispinax Swinton p. 143
1971Megalosaurus pannoniensis Dinca et al. p. 89
1973Phaedrolosaurus Dong pp. 46-47 figs. Pl. 2, Fig. 1
1973Phaedrolosaurus ilikensis Dong p. 46
1975Prodeinodon Hou et al. p. 29
1975Prodeinodon kwangshiensis Hou et al. p. 29
1976Prodeinodon Kurzanov p. 93
1978Chienkosaurus Dong et al.
1978Teinurosaurus sauvagei Olshevsky p. 13
1978Streptospondylus cuvieri Rioult p. 28
1980Prodeinodon kwangshiensis Chao
1980Phaedrolosaurus ilikensis Chao p. 68
1980Altispinax Molnar p. 137
1980Phaedrolosaurus ilikensis Molnar and Pledge p. 286
1981Allosaurus tendagurensis Molnar et al. p. 145
1982Megalosaurus pannoniensis Jurcsák p. 182
1982Megalosaurus ingens Santafé et al. p. 84
1982Dandakosaurus Yadagiri
1982Dandakosaurus indicus Yadagiri
1983Sinocoelurus Dong et al.
1983Sinocoelurus fragilis Dong et al.
1983Prodeinodon Zhao p. 304
1983Sinocoelurus Zhao p. 304
1984Megalosaurus pannoniensis Brinkmann p. 297
1984Megalosaurus ingens Buscalioni and Sanz p. 12
1984Sinocoelurus He p. 40
1984Sinocoelurus fragilis He p. 40 figs. 6-12
1985Megalosaurus pannoniensis Penner p. 668
1985Sinocoelurus fragilis Zhao p. 289
1986Megalosaurus ingens Chabli p. 70
1986Tetanurae Gauthier p. 23
1986Megalosaurus pannoniensis Ginsburg p. 144
1986Phaedrolosaurus ilikensis Li et al. p. 27
1986Phaedrolosaurus ilikensis Qi et al. p. 192
1986Phaedrolosaurus ilikensis Zhao p. 68
1988Altispinax Carroll
1988Chienkosaurus Carroll
1988Inosaurus Carroll
1988Phaedrolosaurus Carroll
1988Sinocoelurus Carroll
1988Teinurosaurus Carroll
1988Ceratosaurus ingens Paul p. 278
1989Altispinax Kurzanov p. 4
1990Tetanurae Benton p. 19
1990Allosaurus tendagurensis Molnar et al. p. 189
1990Megalosaurus pannoniensis Molnar et al. p. 192
1990Tetanurae Osmolska p. 149
1992Megalosaurus pannoniensis Buffetaut pp. 130-131
1992Phaedrolosaurus Dong p. 164
1992Sinocoelurus Dong p. 164
1992Prodeinodon Dong p. 165
1992Tetanurae Novas p. 144
1992Phaedrolosaurus ilikensis Shen and Mateer p. 75
1993Tetanurae Chatterjee p. 283
1994Phaedrolosaurus ilikensis Dong p. 2097
1994Prodeinodon kwangshiensis Dong p. 2098
1994Prodeinodon Eberth et al. p. 2103
1994Tetanurae Holtz, Jr.
1994Dryptosaurus medius Molnar and Wiffen p. 693
1994Tetanurae Pérez-Moreno et al. p. 184 fig. 1
1995Tetanurae Holtz, Jr. p. 35A
1995Tetanurae Holtz, Jr. and Padian p. 35A
1995Tetanurae Sereno p. 52A
1996Tetanurae Hutt et al. p. 638
1997Tetanurae Currie p. 732
1997Tetanurae Hutchinson and Padian p. 129
1997Tetanurae Sereno p. 444
1998Tetanurae Holtz, Jr. p. 39
1998Tetanurae Sampson et al. p. 1050 fig. 3
1998Tetanurae Sereno p. 64
1999Tetanurae Sereno p. 2138 fig. 2
2000Prodeinodon Currie p. 450
2000Prodeinodon mongoliensis Currie p. 450
2000Tetanurae Holtz, Jr. p. 17
2001Streptospondylus cuvieri Allain p. 352
2003Tetanurae Rauhut p. 135
2003Prodeinodon Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo p. 111
2003Prodeinodon mongoliense Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo p. 113
2003Altispinax Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo p. 297
2003Phaedrolosaurus Ruiz-Omeñaca and Canudo p. 297
2004Allosaurus tendagurensis Holtz, Jr. et al. p. 75
2005Tetanurae Yates p. 118 fig. 9
2006Tetanurae Ezcurra p. 657 fig. 3
2006Allosaurus tendagurensis Mateus p. 231
2007Tetanurae Ezcurra and Cuny p. 78 fig. 6
2007Tetanurae Ezcurra and Novas p. 46 fig. 12
2009Prodeinodon kwangshiensis Wu et al. p. 23
2010Tetanurae Gay p. 28
2012Tetanurae Allain et al. p. 370
2012Tetanurae Carrano et al. p. 248 fig. 7
2014Tetanurae Hendrickx and Mateus
2016Tetanurae Apesteguia et al.
2017Tetanurae Rauhut and Pol
2018Tetanurae Porfiri et al.

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
AverostraPaul 2002

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

J. R. Hutchinson and K. Padian 1997Tetanurae is diagnosed by numerous synapomorphies, including increased pneumaticity in the skull, a manus reduced to only three digits, a reduced fibula that is clasped by the tibia, an anteriorly placed horizontal groove on the astragalar condyles, an upper (maxillary) tooth row restricted to anterior to the eye socket, and an obturator notch on the ischium.
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Entire body: yeso
Adult length: 10 to < 100o
Adult width: 1.0 to < 10o
Adult height: 1.0 to < 10o
Maximum body mass: 10000 kgg
Minimum body mass: 300 gg
Architecture: compact or denseo
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partso
Grouping: solitaryo
Environment: terrestrialo
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: ground dwellingo
Diet: carnivoreo
Reproduction: oviparouso
Dispersal: direct/internalo
Dispersal 2: mobileo
Created: 2004-12-14 12:50:08
Modified: 2004-12-14 14:50:08
Source: g = genus, o = order
References: Kiessling 2004, Peczkis 1995, Marsh 1875

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Kungurian to the top of the Holocene or 279.30000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 272.3 Ma

Collections (4499 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Kungurian279.3 - 272.3Russian Federation Sylvia sp. 1 (30384)
Carnian - Norian237.0 - 208.5Lesotho Bosiutrisauropus phuthiatsani (56029)
Late/Upper Triassic237.0 - 201.3United Kingdom (England) Plesiothornipos binneyi (174686)
Norian - Rhaetian228.0 - 201.3Lesotho (Mohale's Hoek) Mafatrisauropus errans, Anomoepus sp. (56020)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3Germany (Sachsen-Anhalt) Carnosauria indet. (22684)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3France (Franche-Comte) Megalosaurus sp. (90877)
Hettangian201.3 - 199.3China (Yunnan) Therizinosauroidea indet. (51909)
Hettangian - Sinemurian201.3 - 190.8Lesotho (Mohale's Hoek) Anomoepus sp. (56010)
Hettangian - Sinemurian201.3 - 190.8Lesotho (Quthing) Trisauropodiscus superavipes (84072)
Early/Lower Jurassic201.3 - 174.1China (Xizang) Megalosaurus tibetensis (165590)
Jurassic201.3 - 145.0China (Jilin) Changpeipus carbonicus (60515)
Sinemurian199.3 - 190.8Lesotho Mafatrisauropus errans (56014)
Sinemurian199.3 - 190.8United Kingdom (England) Scelidosaurus harrisonii (52260 52262)
Sinemurian - Pliensbachian199.3 - 182.7Antarctica Tetanurae indet. (47135)
Sinemurian - Pliensbachian199.3 - 182.7USA (Arizona) Theropoda indet. (51899)
Pliensbachian190.8 - 182.7Morocco (Azilal) Carnosauria indet. B (90925) Coelurosauria indet. A (90915)
Toarcian182.7 - 174.1Morocco (Azilal) Theropoda indet. (48566)
Early/Lower Aalenian175.6 - 171.6United Kingdom (England) Satapliasaurus dsocenidzei (83052)
Aalenian - Bajocian174.1 - 168.3China (Sichuan) Coeluridae indet. (140257)
Middle Jurassic174.1 - 163.5China (Xinjiang) Carnosauria indet. (38135 38136) Megalosauridae indet. (140198)